Welcome to the Android 14 Beta! Please give us your feedback, and help us make Android 14 the best release yet.

Behavior changes: Apps targeting Android 14 or higher

Like earlier releases, Android 14 includes behavior changes that may affect your app. The following behavior changes apply exclusively to apps that are targeting Android 14 or higher. If your app is targeting Android 14 or higher, you should modify your app to support these behaviors properly, where applicable.

Be sure to also review the list of behavior changes that affect all apps running on Android 14 regardless of the app's targetSdkVersion.

Core functionality

Foreground service types are required

If your app targets Android 14, it must specify at least one foreground service type for each foreground service within your app. You should choose a foreground service type that represents your app's use case. The system expects foreground services that have a particular type to satisfy a particular use case.

If a use case in your app isn't associated with any of these types, it's strongly recommended that you migrate your logic to use WorkManager or user-initiated data transfer jobs.

Enforcement of BLUETOOTH_CONNECT permission in BluetoothAdapter

Android 14 enforces the BLUETOOTH_CONNECT permission when calling the BluetoothAdapter getProfileConnectionState() method for apps targeting Android 14 (API level 34).

This method already required the BLUETOOTH_CONNECT permission, but it was not enforced. Make sure your app declares BLUETOOTH_CONNECT in your app's AndroidManifest.xml file as shown in the following snippet and check that a user has granted the permission before calling getProfileConnectionState.

<uses-permission android:name="android.permission.BLUETOOTH_CONNECT" />

OpenJDK 17 updates

Android 14 将继续更新 Android 的核心库,以与最新 OpenJDK LTS 版本中的功能保持一致,包括适合应用和平台开发者的库更新和 Java 17 语言支持。


  • 对正则表达式的更改:现在,为了更严格地遵循 OpenJDK 的语义,不允许无效的组引用。您可能会看到 java.util.regex.Matcher 类抛出 IllegalArgumentException 的新情况,因此请务必测试应用中使用正则表达式的情形。如需在测试期间启用或停用此变更,请使用兼容性框架工具切换 DISALLOW_INVALID_GROUP_REFERENCE 标志。
  • UUID 处理:现在,验证输入参数时,java.util.UUID.fromString() 方法会执行更严格的检查,因此您可能会在反序列化期间看到 IllegalArgumentException。如需在测试期间启用或停用此变更,请使用兼容性框架工具切换 ENABLE_STRICT_VALIDATION 标志。
  • ProGuard 问题:有时,在您尝试使用 ProGuard 缩减、混淆和优化应用时,添加 java.lang.ClassValue 类会导致问题。问题源自 Kotlin 库,该库会根据 Class.forName("java.lang.ClassValue") 是否会返回类更改运行时行为。如果您的应用是根据没有 java.lang.ClassValue 类的旧版运行时开发的,则这些优化可能会将 computeValue 方法从派生自 java.lang.ClassValue 的类中移除。


Restrictions to implicit and pending intents

For apps targeting Android 14, Android restricts apps from sending implicit intents to internal app components in the following ways:

  • Implicit intents are only delivered to exported components. Apps must either use an explicit intent to deliver to unexported components, or mark the component as exported.
  • If an app creates a mutable pending intent with an intent that doesn't specify a component or package, the system now throws an exception.

These changes prevent malicious apps from intercepting implicit intents that are intended for use by an app's internal components.

For example, here is an intent filter that could be declared in your app's manifest file:

        <action android:name="com.example.action.APP_ACTION" />
        <category android:name="android.intent.category.DEFAULT" />

If your app tried to launch this activity using an implicit intent, an exception would be thrown:


// Throws an exception when targeting Android 14.


// Throws an exception when targeting Android 14.
context.startActivity(new Intent("com.example.action.APP_ACTION"));

To launch the non-exported activity, your app should use an explicit intent instead:


// This makes the intent explicit.
val explicitIntent =
explicitIntent.apply {
    package = context.packageName


// This makes the intent explicit.
Intent explicitIntent =
        new Intent("com.example.action.APP_ACTION")

Runtime-registered broadcasts receivers must specify export behavior

Apps and services that target Android 14 and use context-registered receivers are required to specify a flag to indicate whether or not the receiver should be exported to all other apps on the device: either RECEIVER_EXPORTED or RECEIVER_NOT_EXPORTED, respectively. This requirement helps protect apps from security vulnerabilities by leveraging the features for these receivers introduced in Android 13.

Exception for receivers that receive only system broadcasts

If your app is registering a receiver only for system broadcasts through Context#registerReceiver methods, such as Context#registerReceiver(), then it shouldn't specify a flag when registering the receiver.

Safer dynamic code loading

If your app targets Android 14 and uses Dynamic Code Loading (DCL), all dynamically-loaded files must be marked as read-only. Otherwise, the system throws an exception. We recommend that apps avoid dynamically loading code whenever possible, as doing so greatly increases the risk that an app can be compromised by code injection or code tampering.

If you must dynamically load code, use the following approach to set the dynamically-loaded file (such as a DEX, JAR, or APK file) as read-only as soon as the file is opened and before any content is written:


val jar = File("DYNAMICALLY_LOADED_FILE.jar")
val os = FileOutputStream(jar)
os.use {
    // Set the file to read-only first to prevent race conditions
    // Then write the actual file content
val cl = PathClassLoader(jar, parentClassLoader)


File jar = new File("DYNAMICALLY_LOADED_FILE.jar");
try (FileOutputStream os = new FileOutputStream(jar)) {
    // Set the file to read-only first to prevent race conditions
    // Then write the actual file content
} catch (IOException e) { ... }
PathClassLoader cl = new PathClassLoader(jar, parentClassLoader);

Handle dynamically-loaded files that already exist

To prevent exceptions from being thrown for existing dynamically-loaded files, we recommend deleting and recreating the files before you try to dynamically load them again in your app. As you recreate the files, follow the preceding guidance for marking the files read-only at write time. Alternatively, you can re-label the existing files as read-only, but in this case, we strongly recommend that you verify the integrity of the files first (for example, by checking the file's signature against a trusted value), to help protect your app from malicious actions.

Zip path traversal

For apps targeting Android 14, Android prevents the Zip Path Traversal Vulnerability in the following way: ZipFile(String) and ZipInputStream.getNextEntry() throws a ZipException if zip file entry names contain ".." or start with "/".

Apps can opt-out from this validation by calling dalvik.system.ZipPathValidator.clearCallback().

Additional restrictions on starting activities from the background

For apps targeting Android 14, the system further restricts when apps are allowed to start activities from the background:

These changes expand the existing set of restrictions to protect users by preventing malicious apps from abusing APIs to start disruptive activities from the background.

Updated non-SDK restrictions

Android 14 包含更新后的受限非 SDK 接口列表(基于与 Android 开发者之间的协作以及最新的内部测试)。在限制使用非 SDK 接口之前,我们会尽可能确保有可用的公开替代方案。

如果您的应用并非以 Android 14 为目标平台,其中一些变更可能不会立即对您产生影响。然而,虽然您目前仍可以使用一些非 SDK 接口(具体取决于应用的目标 API 级别),但只要您使用任何非 SDK 方法或字段,终归存在导致应用出问题的显著风险。

如果您不确定自己的应用是否使用了非 SDK 接口,则可以测试您的应用来进行确认。如果您的应用依赖于非 SDK 接口,您应该开始计划迁移到 SDK 替代方案。然而,我们知道某些应用具有使用非 SDK 接口的有效用例。如果您无法为应用中的某项功能找到使用非 SDK 接口的替代方案,应请求新的公共 API

To learn more about the changes in this release of Android, see Updates to non-SDK interface restrictions in Android 14. To learn more about non-SDK interfaces generally, see Restrictions on non-SDK interfaces.