前台服务类型

从 Android 14(API 级别 34)开始,您必须为每个前台服务声明适当的服务类型。这意味着,您必须在应用清单中声明服务类型,并且除了请求 FOREGROUND_SERVICE 权限之外,还必须为该类型请求适当的前台服务权限。此外,根据前台服务类型,您可能需要在启动服务之前请求运行时权限。

摄像头

要在清单中声明的 android:foregroundServiceType 下的前台服务类型
camera
在清单中声明的权限
FOREGROUND_SERVICE_CAMERA
要传递给 startForeground() 的常量
FOREGROUND_SERVICE_TYPE_CAMERA
运行时前提条件

请求并获得 CAMERA 运行时权限

注意CAMERA 运行时权限受使用时限制。因此,当您的应用位于后台时,您无法创建 camera 前台服务,但存在一些例外情况。如需了解详情,请参阅与启动需要运行时权限的前台服务相关的限制

说明

继续在后台访问相机,例如支持多任务的视频聊天应用。

连接的设备

Foreground service type to declare in manifest under
android:foregroundServiceType
connectedDevice
Permission to declare in your manifest
FOREGROUND_SERVICE_CONNECTED_DEVICE
Constant to pass to startForeground()
FOREGROUND_SERVICE_TYPE_CONNECTED_DEVICE
Runtime prerequisites

At least one of the following conditions must be true:

Description

Interactions with external devices that require a Bluetooth, NFC, IR, USB, or network connection.

Alternatives

If your app needs to do continuous data transfer to an external device, consider using the companion device manager instead. Use the companion device presence API to help your app stay running while the companion device is in range.

If your app needs to scan for bluetooth devices, consider using the Bluetooth scan API instead.

数据同步

要在清单中声明的前台服务类型
android:foregroundServiceType
dataSync
在清单中声明的权限
FOREGROUND_SERVICE_DATA_SYNC
要传递给 startForeground() 的常量
FOREGROUND_SERVICE_TYPE_DATA_SYNC
运行时前提条件
说明

数据传输操作,例如:

  • 数据上传或下载
  • 备份和恢复操作
  • 导入或导出操作
  • 获取数据
  • 本地文件处理
  • 通过网络在设备和云端之间传输数据
替代方案

创建用户发起的数据传输作业,让用户启动长时间运行的数据上传或下载任务。

使用 Download Manager API 可以通过 URI 下载数据。

使用 BackupManager 备份或恢复数据。

对于其他用例,请考虑使用 WorkManager

健康

要在其清单中声明的前台服务类型
android:foregroundServiceType
health
在清单中声明的权限
FOREGROUND_SERVICE_HEALTH
要传递给 startForeground() 的常量
FOREGROUND_SERVICE_TYPE_HEALTH
运行时前提条件

必须至少满足以下其中一个条件:

注意BODY_SENSORS 运行时权限受使用时限制。因此,您无法创建在应用在后台运行时使用身体传感器的 health 前台服务,但存在一些例外情况。如需了解详情,请参阅有关启动需要运行时权限的前台服务的限制

说明

为健身类别的应用(例如锻炼追踪器)提供支持的所有长时间运行的用例。

位置

要在清单中声明的前台服务类型
android:foregroundServiceType
location
在清单中声明的权限
FOREGROUND_SERVICE_LOCATION
要传递给 startForeground() 的常量
FOREGROUND_SERVICE_TYPE_LOCATION
运行时前提条件

请求并被授予以下至少一项运行时权限:

注意:位置信息运行时权限受使用时限制。因此,当您的应用位于后台时,您无法创建 location 前台服务,但存在一些例外情况。如需了解详情,请参阅与启动需要运行时权限的前台服务相关的限制

说明

需要位置信息使用权的长时间运行的用例,例如导航和位置信息分享。

替代方案

如果需要在用户到达特定位置时触发您的应用,请考虑改用地理围栏 API

媒体

Foreground service type to declare in manifest under
android:foregroundServiceType
mediaPlayback
Permission to declare in your manifest
FOREGROUND_SERVICE_MEDIA_PLAYBACK
Constant to pass to startForeground()
FOREGROUND_SERVICE_TYPE_MEDIA_PLAYBACK
Runtime prerequisites
None
Description
Continue audio or video playback from the background. Support Digital Video Recording (DVR) functionality on Android TV.
Alternatives
If you're showing picture-in-picture video, use Picture-in-Picture mode.

媒体投影

Foreground service type to declare in manifest under
android:foregroundServiceType
mediaProjection
Permission to declare in your manifest
FOREGROUND_SERVICE_MEDIA_PROJECTION
Constant to pass to startForeground()
FOREGROUND_SERVICE_TYPE_MEDIA_PROJECTION
Runtime prerequisites

Call the createScreenCaptureIntent() method before starting the foreground service. Doing so shows a permission notification to the user; the user must grant the permission before you can create the service.

After you have created the foreground service, you can call MediaProjectionManager.getMediaProjection().

Description

Project content to non-primary display or external device using the MediaProjection APIs. This content doesn't have to be exclusively media content.

Alternatives

To stream media to another device, use the Google Cast SDK.

麦克风

Foreground service type to declare in manifest under
android:foregroundServiceType
microphone
Permission to declare in your manifest
FOREGROUND_SERVICE_MICROPHONE
Constant to pass to startForeground()
FOREGROUND_SERVICE_TYPE_MICROPHONE
Runtime prerequisites

Request and be granted the RECORD_AUDIO runtime permission.

Note: The RECORD_AUDIO runtime permission is subject to while-in-use restrictions. For this reason, you cannot create a microphone foreground service while your app is in the background, with a few exceptions. For more information, see Restrictions on starting foreground services that need while-in-use permissions.

Description

Continue microphone capture from the background, such as voice recorders or communication apps.

致电

要在清单中声明的前台服务类型
android:foregroundServiceType
phoneCall
在清单中声明的权限
FOREGROUND_SERVICE_PHONE_CALL
要传递给 startForeground() 的常量
FOREGROUND_SERVICE_TYPE_PHONE_CALL
运行时前提条件

必须至少满足以下其中一个条件:

  • 应用是通过 ROLE_DIALER 角色成为默认拨号器应用。
说明

使用 ConnectionService API 继续当前通话。

替代方案

如果您需要拨打电话、视频或 VoIP 通话,请考虑使用 android.telecom 库。

建议使用 CallScreeningService 过滤来电。

远程消息传递

Foreground service type to declare in manifest under
android:foregroundServiceType
remoteMessaging
Permission to declare in your manifest
FOREGROUND_SERVICE_REMOTE_MESSAGING
Constant to pass to startForeground()
FOREGROUND_SERVICE_TYPE_REMOTE_MESSAGING
Runtime prerequisites
None
Description
Transfer text messages from one device to another. Assists with continuity of a user's messaging tasks when they switch devices.

短期服务

Foreground service type to declare in manifest under
android:foregroundServiceType
shortService
Permission to declare in your manifest
None
Constant to pass to startForeground()
FOREGROUND_SERVICE_TYPE_SHORT_SERVICE
Runtime prerequisites
None
Description

Quickly finish critical work that cannot be interrupted or postponed.

This type has some unique characteristics:

  • Can only run for a short period of time (about 3 minutes).
  • No support for sticky foreground services.
  • Cannot start other foreground services.
  • Doesn't require a type-specific permission, though it still requires the FOREGROUND_SERVICE permission.
  • A shortService can only change to another service type if the app is currently eligible to start a new foreground service.
  • A foreground service can change its type to shortService at any time, at which point the timeout period begins.

The timeout for shortService begins from the moment that Service.startForeground() is called. The app is expected to call Service.stopSelf() or Service.stopForeground() before the timeout occurs. Otherwise, the new Service.onTimeout() is called, giving apps a brief opportunity to call stopSelf() or stopForeground() to stop their service.

A short time after Service.onTimeout() is called, the app enters a cached state and is no longer considered to be in the foreground, unless the user is actively interacting with the app. A short time after the app is cached and the service has not stopped, the app receives an ANR. The ANR message mentions FOREGROUND_SERVICE_TYPE_SHORT_SERVICE. For these reasons, it's considered best practice to implement the Service.onTimeout() callback.

The Service.onTimeout() callback doesn't exist on Android 13 and lower. If the same service runs on such devices, it doesn't receive a timeout, nor does it ANR. Make sure that your service stops as soon as it finishes the processing task, even if it hasn't received the Service.onTimeout() callback yet.

It's important to note that if the timeout of the shortService is not respected, the app will ANR even if it has other valid foreground services or other app lifecycle processes running.

If an app is visible to the user or satisfies one of the exemptions that allow foreground services to be started from the background, calling Service.StartForeground() again with the FOREGROUND_SERVICE_TYPE_SHORT_SERVICE parameter extends the timeout by another 3 minutes. If the app isn't visible to the user and doesn't satisfy one of the exemptions, any attempt to start another foreground service, regardless of type, causes a ForegroundServiceStartNotAllowedException.

If a user disables battery optimization for your app, it's still affected by the timeout of shortService FGS.

If you start a foreground service that includes the shortService type and another foreground service type, the system ignores the shortService type declaration. However, the service must still adhere to the prerequisites of the other declared types. For more information, see the Foreground services documentation.

特殊用途

要在其清单中声明的前台服务类型
android:foregroundServiceType
specialUse
在清单中声明的权限
FOREGROUND_SERVICE_SPECIAL_USE
要传递给 startForeground() 的常量
FOREGROUND_SERVICE_TYPE_SPECIAL_USE
运行时前提条件
说明

涵盖其他前台服务类型未涵盖的所有有效前台服务用例。

除了声明 FOREGROUND_SERVICE_TYPE_SPECIAL_USE 前台服务类型之外,开发者还应在清单中声明用例。为此,他们会在 <service> 元素内指定 <property> 元素。当您在 Google Play 管理中心内提交应用时,我们会审核这些值和相应的用例。您提供的用例是自由形式的,您应确保提供足够的信息,让审核人员了解您为何需要使用 specialUse 类型。

<service android:name="fooService" android:foregroundServiceType="specialUse">
  <property android:name="android.app.PROPERTY_SPECIAL_USE_FGS_SUBTYPE"
      android:value="explanation_for_special_use"/>
</service>

系统豁免

要在其清单中声明的前台服务类型
android:foregroundServiceType
systemExempted
在清单中声明的权限
FOREGROUND_SERVICE_SYSTEM_EXEMPTED
要传递给 startForeground() 的常量
FOREGROUND_SERVICE_TYPE_SYSTEM_EXEMPTED
运行时前提条件
说明

为系统应用和特定系统集成预留,以便继续使用前台服务。

如需使用此类型,应用必须至少满足以下条件之一:

使用前台服务类型时强制执行的 Google Play 政策

如果您的应用以 Android 14 或更高版本为目标平台,您需要在 Play 管理中心的应用内容页面(政策 > 应用内容)中声明应用的前台服务类型。如需详细了解如何在 Play 管理中心内声明前台服务类型,请参阅了解前台服务和全屏 intent 要求