Foreground service types

Beginning with Android 14 (API level 34), you must declare an appropriate service type for each foreground service. That means you must declare the service type in your app manifest, and also request the appropriate foreground service permission for that type (in addition to requesting the FOREGROUND_SERVICE permission). Furthermore, depending on the foreground service type, you might have to request runtime permissions before you launch the service.

Camera

Foreground service type to declare in manifest under android:foregroundServiceType
camera
Permission to declare in your manifest
FOREGROUND_SERVICE_CAMERA
Constant to pass to startForeground()
FOREGROUND_SERVICE_TYPE_CAMERA
Runtime prerequisites

Request and be granted the CAMERA runtime permission

Note: The CAMERA runtime permission is subject to while-in-use restrictions. For this reason, you cannot create a camera foreground service while your app is in the background, with a few exceptions. For more information, see Restrictions on starting foreground services that need while-in-use permissions.

Description

Continue to access the camera from the background, such as video chat apps that allow for multitasking.

Connected device

Foreground service type to declare in manifest under
android:foregroundServiceType
connectedDevice
Permission to declare in your manifest
FOREGROUND_SERVICE_CONNECTED_DEVICE
Constant to pass to startForeground()
FOREGROUND_SERVICE_TYPE_CONNECTED_DEVICE
Runtime prerequisites

At least one of the following conditions must be true:

Description

Interactions with external devices that require a Bluetooth, NFC, IR, USB, or network connection.

Alternatives

If your app needs to do continuous data transfer to an external device, consider using the companion device manager instead. Use the companion device presence API to help your app stay running while the companion device is in range.

If your app needs to scan for bluetooth devices, consider using the Bluetooth scan API instead.

Data sync

Foreground service type to declare in manifest under
android:foregroundServiceType
dataSync
Permission to declare in your manifest
FOREGROUND_SERVICE_DATA_SYNC
Constant to pass to startForeground()
FOREGROUND_SERVICE_TYPE_DATA_SYNC
Runtime prerequisites
None
Description

Data transfer operations, such as the following:

  • Data upload or download
  • Backup-and-restore operations
  • Import or export operations
  • Fetch data
  • Local file processing
  • Transfer data between a device and the cloud over a network
Alternatives

See Alternatives to data sync foreground services for detailed information.

Health

Foreground service type to declare in manifest under
android:foregroundServiceType
health
Permission to declare in your manifest
FOREGROUND_SERVICE_HEALTH
Constant to pass to startForeground()
FOREGROUND_SERVICE_TYPE_HEALTH
Runtime prerequisites

At least one of the following conditions must be true:

Note: The BODY_SENSORS runtime permission is subject to while-in-use restrictions. For this reason, you cannot create a health foreground service that uses body sensors while your app is in the background, with a few exceptions. For more information, see Restrictions on starting foreground services that need while-in-use permissions.

Description

Any long-running use cases to support apps in the fitness category such as exercise trackers.

Location

Foreground service type to declare in manifest under
android:foregroundServiceType
location
Permission to declare in your manifest
FOREGROUND_SERVICE_LOCATION
Constant to pass to startForeground()
FOREGROUND_SERVICE_TYPE_LOCATION
Runtime prerequisites

The user must have enabled location services and the app must be granted at least one of the following runtime permissions:

Note: In order to check that the user has enabled location services as well as granted access to the runtime permissions, use PermissionChecker#checkSelfPermission()

Note: The location runtime permissions are subject to while-in-use restrictions. For this reason, you cannot create a location foreground service while your app is in the background, unless you've been granted the ACCESS_BACKGROUND_LOCATION runtime permission. For more information, see Restrictions on starting foreground services that need while-in-use permissions.

Description

Long-running use cases that require location access, such as navigation and location sharing.

Alternatives

If your app needs to be triggered when the user reaches specific locations, consider using the geofence API instead.

Media

Foreground service type to declare in manifest under
android:foregroundServiceType
mediaPlayback
Permission to declare in your manifest
FOREGROUND_SERVICE_MEDIA_PLAYBACK
Constant to pass to startForeground()
FOREGROUND_SERVICE_TYPE_MEDIA_PLAYBACK
Runtime prerequisites
None
Description
Continue audio or video playback from the background. Support Digital Video Recording (DVR) functionality on Android TV.
Alternatives
If you're showing picture-in-picture video, use Picture-in-Picture mode.

Media projection

Foreground service type to declare in manifest under
android:foregroundServiceType
mediaProjection
Permission to declare in your manifest
FOREGROUND_SERVICE_MEDIA_PROJECTION
Constant to pass to startForeground()
FOREGROUND_SERVICE_TYPE_MEDIA_PROJECTION
Runtime prerequisites

Call the createScreenCaptureIntent() method before starting the foreground service. Doing so shows a permission notification to the user; the user must grant the permission before you can create the service.

After you have created the foreground service, you can call MediaProjectionManager.getMediaProjection().

Description

Project content to non-primary display or external device using the MediaProjection APIs. This content doesn't have to be exclusively media content.

Alternatives

To stream media to another device, use the Google Cast SDK.

Microphone

Foreground service type to declare in manifest under
android:foregroundServiceType
microphone
Permission to declare in your manifest
FOREGROUND_SERVICE_MICROPHONE
Constant to pass to startForeground()
FOREGROUND_SERVICE_TYPE_MICROPHONE
Runtime prerequisites

Request and be granted the RECORD_AUDIO runtime permission.

Note: The RECORD_AUDIO runtime permission is subject to while-in-use restrictions. For this reason, you cannot create a microphone foreground service while your app is in the background, with a few exceptions. For more information, see Restrictions on starting foreground services that need while-in-use permissions.

Description

Continue microphone capture from the background, such as voice recorders or communication apps.

Phone call

要在其清单中声明的前台服务类型
android:foregroundServiceType
phoneCall
在清单中声明的权限
FOREGROUND_SERVICE_PHONE_CALL
要传递给 startForeground() 的常量
FOREGROUND_SERVICE_TYPE_PHONE_CALL
运行时前提条件

必须至少满足以下其中一个条件:

  • 应用通过 ROLE_DIALER 角色成为默认拨号器应用。
说明

使用 ConnectionService API 继续当前通话。

替代方案

如果您需要拨打电话、视频或 VoIP 通话,请考虑使用 android.telecom 库。

不妨考虑使用 CallScreeningService 过滤来电。

Remote messaging

Foreground service type to declare in manifest under
android:foregroundServiceType
remoteMessaging
Permission to declare in your manifest
FOREGROUND_SERVICE_REMOTE_MESSAGING
Constant to pass to startForeground()
FOREGROUND_SERVICE_TYPE_REMOTE_MESSAGING
Runtime prerequisites
None
Description
Transfer text messages from one device to another. Assists with continuity of a user's messaging tasks when they switch devices.

Short service

Foreground service type to declare in manifest under
android:foregroundServiceType
shortService
Permission to declare in your manifest
None
Constant to pass to startForeground()
FOREGROUND_SERVICE_TYPE_SHORT_SERVICE
Runtime prerequisites
None
Description

Quickly finish critical work that cannot be interrupted or postponed.

This type has some unique characteristics:

  • Can only run for a short period of time (about 3 minutes).
  • No support for sticky foreground services.
  • Cannot start other foreground services.
  • Doesn't require a type-specific permission, though it still requires the FOREGROUND_SERVICE permission.
  • A shortService can only change to another service type if the app is currently eligible to start a new foreground service.
  • A foreground service can change its type to shortService at any time, at which point the timeout period begins.

The timeout for shortService begins from the moment that Service.startForeground() is called. The app is expected to call Service.stopSelf() or Service.stopForeground() before the timeout occurs. Otherwise, the new Service.onTimeout() is called, giving apps a brief opportunity to call stopSelf() or stopForeground() to stop their service.

A short time after Service.onTimeout() is called, the app enters a cached state and is no longer considered to be in the foreground, unless the user is actively interacting with the app. A short time after the app is cached and the service has not stopped, the app receives an ANR. The ANR message mentions FOREGROUND_SERVICE_TYPE_SHORT_SERVICE. For these reasons, it's considered best practice to implement the Service.onTimeout() callback.

The Service.onTimeout() callback doesn't exist on Android 13 and lower. If the same service runs on such devices, it doesn't receive a timeout, nor does it ANR. Make sure that your service stops as soon as it finishes the processing task, even if it hasn't received the Service.onTimeout() callback yet.

It's important to note that if the timeout of the shortService is not respected, the app will ANR even if it has other valid foreground services or other app lifecycle processes running.

If an app is visible to the user or satisfies one of the exemptions that allow foreground services to be started from the background, calling Service.StartForeground() again with the FOREGROUND_SERVICE_TYPE_SHORT_SERVICE parameter extends the timeout by another 3 minutes. If the app isn't visible to the user and doesn't satisfy one of the exemptions, any attempt to start another foreground service, regardless of type, causes a ForegroundServiceStartNotAllowedException.

If a user disables battery optimization for your app, it's still affected by the timeout of shortService FGS.

If you start a foreground service that includes the shortService type and another foreground service type, the system ignores the shortService type declaration. However, the service must still adhere to the prerequisites of the other declared types. For more information, see the Foreground services documentation.

Special use

Foreground service type to declare in manifest under
android:foregroundServiceType
specialUse
Permission to declare in your manifest
FOREGROUND_SERVICE_SPECIAL_USE
Constant to pass to startForeground()
FOREGROUND_SERVICE_TYPE_SPECIAL_USE
Runtime prerequisites
None
Description

Covers any valid foreground service use cases that aren't covered by the other foreground service types.

In addition to declaring the FOREGROUND_SERVICE_TYPE_SPECIAL_USE foreground service type, developers should declare use cases in the manifest. To do so, they specify the <property> element within the <service> element. These values and corresponding use cases are reviewed when you submit your app in the Google Play Console. The use cases you provide are free-form, and you should make sure to provide enough information to let the reviewer see why you need to use the specialUse type.

<service android:name="fooService" android:foregroundServiceType="specialUse">
  <property android:name="android.app.PROPERTY_SPECIAL_USE_FGS_SUBTYPE"
      android:value="explanation_for_special_use"/>
</service>

System exempted

Foreground service type to declare in manifest under
android:foregroundServiceType
systemExempted
Permission to declare in your manifest
FOREGROUND_SERVICE_SYSTEM_EXEMPTED
Constant to pass to startForeground()
FOREGROUND_SERVICE_TYPE_SYSTEM_EXEMPTED
Runtime prerequisites
None
Description

Reserved for system applications and specific system integrations, to continue to use foreground services.

To use this type, an app must meet at least one of the following criteria:

Google Play policy enforcement for using foreground service types

If your app targets Android 14 or higher, you'll need to declare your app's foreground service types in the Play Console's app content page (Policy > App content). For more information on how to declare your foreground service types in Play Console, see Understanding foreground service and full-screen intent requirements.