行为变更:以 Android 14 或更高版本为目标平台的应用

与以前的版本一样,Android 14 包含一些行为变更,这些变更可能会影响您的应用。以下行为变更仅影响以 Android 14(API 级别 34)或更高版本为目标平台的应用。如果您的应用以 Android 14 或更高版本为目标平台,您应该修改自己的应用以适当地支持这些行为(如果适用)。

此外,请务必查看对 Android 14 上运行的所有应用都有影响的行为变更列表(无论应用的 targetSdkVersion 如何)。

核心功能

前台服务类型是必需的

如果您的应用以 Android 14(API 级别 34)或更高版本为目标平台,则必须为应用中的每项前台服务指定至少一个前台服务类型。您应该选择一个能够代表应用用例的前台服务类型。系统需要特定类型的前台服务满足特定用例。

如果应用中的用例与这些类型均不相关,强烈建议您迁移逻辑以使用 WorkManager用户发起的数据传输作业

在 BluetoothAdapter 中强制执行 BLUETOOTH_CONNECT 权限

对于以 Android 14(API 级别 34)或更高版本为目标平台的应用,Android 14 会在调用 BluetoothAdapter getProfileConnectionState() 方法时强制执行 BLUETOOTH_CONNECT 权限。

此方法已需要 BLUETOOTH_CONNECT 权限,但未被强制执行。请确保您的应用在应用的 AndroidManifest.xml 文件中声明 BLUETOOTH_CONNECT(如以下代码段所示),并在调用 getProfileConnectionState 之前检查用户是否已授予权限

<uses-permission android:name="android.permission.BLUETOOTH_CONNECT" />

OpenJDK 17 更新

Android 14 continues the work of refreshing Android's core libraries to align with the features in the latest OpenJDK LTS releases, including both library updates and Java 17 language support for app and platform developers.

A few of these changes can affect app compatibility:

  • Changes to regular expressions: Invalid group references are now disallowed to more closely follow the semantics of OpenJDK. You might see new cases where an IllegalArgumentException is thrown by the java.util.regex.Matcher class, so make sure to test your app for areas that use regular expressions. To enable or disable this change while testing, toggle the DISALLOW_INVALID_GROUP_REFERENCE flag using the compatibility framework tools.
  • UUID handling: The java.util.UUID.fromString() method now does more strict checks when validating the input argument, so you might see an IllegalArgumentException during deserialization. To enable or disable this change while testing, toggle the ENABLE_STRICT_VALIDATION flag using the compatibility framework tools.
  • ProGuard issues: In some cases, the addition of the java.lang.ClassValue class causes an issue if you try to shrink, obfuscate, and optimize your app using ProGuard. The problem originates with a Kotlin library that changes runtime behaviour based on whether Class.forName("java.lang.ClassValue") returns a class or not. If your app was developed against an older version of the runtime without the java.lang.ClassValue class available, then these optimizations might remove the computeValue method from classes derived from java.lang.ClassValue.

JobScheduler 增强回调和网络行为

Since its introduction, JobScheduler expects your app to return from onStartJob or onStopJob within a few seconds. Prior to Android 14, if a job runs too long, it stops and fails silently. If your app targets Android 14 (API level 34) or higher and exceeds the granted time on the main thread, the app triggers an ANR with the error message "No response to onStartJob" or "No response to onStopJob". Consider migrating to WorkManager, which provides support for asynchronous processing or migrating any heavy work into a background thread.

JobScheduler also introduces a requirement to declare the ACCESS_NETWORK_STATE permission if using setRequiredNetworkType or setRequiredNetwork constraint. If your app does not declare the ACCESS_NETWORK_STATE permission when scheduling the job and is targeting Android 14 or higher, it will result in a SecurityException.

隐私权

拥有部分照片和视频的访问权限

Android 14 引入了所选照片访问权限,可让用户授权应用访问其媒体库中的特定图片和视频,而不是授予对指定类型的所有媒体的访问权限。

仅当您的应用以 Android 14(API 级别 34)或更高版本为目标平台时,才会启用此变更。如果您还没有使用照片选择器,建议您在应用中实现该选择器,以便在选择图片和视频时提供一致的体验,同时还可以加强用户隐私保护,而无需请求任何存储权限。

如果您使用存储权限维护自己的图库选择器,并且需要完全控制您的实现,请调整您的实现,以使用新的 READ_MEDIA_VISUAL_USER_SELECTED 权限。如果您的应用不使用新权限,系统会在兼容模式下运行应用。

用户体验

安全的全屏 intent 通知

在 Android 11(API 级别 30)中,任何应用都可以在手机处于锁定状态时使用 Notification.Builder.setFullScreenIntent 发送全屏 intent。您可以通过在 AndroidManifest 中声明 USE_FULL_SCREEN_INTENT 权限,在应用安装时自动授予此权限。

全屏 intent 通知适用于需要用户立即注意的极高优先级通知,例如用户来电或用户配置的闹钟设置。对于以 Android 14(API 级别 34)或更高版本为目标平台的应用,获准使用此权限的应用仅限于提供通话和闹钟的应用。对于不适合此资料的任何应用,Google Play 商店会撤消其默认的 USE_FULL_SCREEN_INTENT 权限。这些政策变更的截止日期为 2024 年 5 月 31 日

在用户更新到 Android 14 之前,在手机上安装的应用仍拥有此权限。用户可以开启和关闭此权限。

您可以使用新 API NotificationManager.canUseFullScreenIntent 检查应用是否具有该权限;如果没有,应用可以使用新 intent ACTION_MANAGE_APP_USE_FULL_SCREEN_INTENT 启动设置页面,在该页面中,用户可以授予权限。

安全性

对隐式 intent 和待处理 intent 的限制

For apps targeting Android 14 (API level 34) or higher, Android restricts apps from sending implicit intents to internal app components in the following ways:

  • Implicit intents are only delivered to exported components. Apps must either use an explicit intent to deliver to unexported components, or mark the component as exported.
  • If an app creates a mutable pending intent with an intent that doesn't specify a component or package, the system throws an exception.

These changes prevent malicious apps from intercepting implicit intents that are intended for use by an app's internal components.

For example, here is an intent filter that could be declared in your app's manifest file:

<activity
    android:name=".AppActivity"
    android:exported="false">
    <intent-filter>
        <action android:name="com.example.action.APP_ACTION" />
        <category android:name="android.intent.category.DEFAULT" />
    </intent-filter>
</activity>

If your app tried to launch this activity using an implicit intent, an exception would be thrown:

Kotlin

// Throws an exception when targeting Android 14.
context.startActivity(Intent("com.example.action.APP_ACTION"))

Java

// Throws an exception when targeting Android 14.
context.startActivity(new Intent("com.example.action.APP_ACTION"));

To launch the non-exported activity, your app should use an explicit intent instead:

Kotlin

// This makes the intent explicit.
val explicitIntent =
        Intent("com.example.action.APP_ACTION")
explicitIntent.apply {
    package = context.packageName
}
context.startActivity(explicitIntent)

Java

// This makes the intent explicit.
Intent explicitIntent =
        new Intent("com.example.action.APP_ACTION")
explicitIntent.setPackage(context.getPackageName());
context.startActivity(explicitIntent);

在运行时注册的广播接收器必须指定导出行为

以 Android 14(API 级别 34)或更高版本为目标平台并使用上下文注册的接收器的应用和服务必须指定一个标志,以指明接收器是否应导出到设备上的所有其他应用:分别为 RECEIVER_EXPORTEDRECEIVER_NOT_EXPORTED。此要求有助于利用 Android 13 中引入的这些接收器的功能,保护应用免受安全漏洞的影响。

仅接收系统广播的接收器的例外情况

如果您的应用仅通过 Context#registerReceiver 方法(例如 Context#registerReceiver())为系统广播注册接收器,那么在注册接收器时不应指定标志。

更安全的动态代码加载

If your app targets Android 14 (API level 34) or higher and uses Dynamic Code Loading (DCL), all dynamically-loaded files must be marked as read-only. Otherwise, the system throws an exception. We recommend that apps avoid dynamically loading code whenever possible, as doing so greatly increases the risk that an app can be compromised by code injection or code tampering.

If you must dynamically load code, use the following approach to set the dynamically-loaded file (such as a DEX, JAR, or APK file) as read-only as soon as the file is opened and before any content is written:

Kotlin

val jar = File("DYNAMICALLY_LOADED_FILE.jar")
val os = FileOutputStream(jar)
os.use {
    // Set the file to read-only first to prevent race conditions
    jar.setReadOnly()
    // Then write the actual file content
}
val cl = PathClassLoader(jar, parentClassLoader)

Java

File jar = new File("DYNAMICALLY_LOADED_FILE.jar");
try (FileOutputStream os = new FileOutputStream(jar)) {
    // Set the file to read-only first to prevent race conditions
    jar.setReadOnly();
    // Then write the actual file content
} catch (IOException e) { ... }
PathClassLoader cl = new PathClassLoader(jar, parentClassLoader);

Handle dynamically-loaded files that already exist

To prevent exceptions from being thrown for existing dynamically-loaded files, we recommend deleting and recreating the files before you try to dynamically load them again in your app. As you recreate the files, follow the preceding guidance for marking the files read-only at write time. Alternatively, you can re-label the existing files as read-only, but in this case, we strongly recommend that you verify the integrity of the files first (for example, by checking the file's signature against a trusted value), to help protect your app from malicious actions.

针对从后台启动 activity 的其他限制

For apps targeting Android 14 (API level 34) or higher, the system further restricts when apps are allowed to start activities from the background:

These changes expand the existing set of restrictions to protect users by preventing malicious apps from abusing APIs to start disruptive activities from the background.

压缩路径遍历

对于以 Android 14(API 级别 34)或更高版本为目标平台的应用,Android 会通过以下方式防止 Zip 路径遍历漏洞:如果 zip 文件条目名称包含“..”或以“/”开头,则 ZipInputStream.getNextEntry() 会抛出 ZipExceptionZipFile(String)

应用可以通过调用 dalvik.system.ZipPathValidator.clearCallback() 选择停用此验证。

对于以 Android 14(API 级别 34)或更高版本为目标平台的应用,在以下任一情况下,MediaProjection#createVirtualDisplay 会抛出 SecurityException

您的应用必须在每次捕获会话之前征求用户同意。单次拍摄会话是指对 MediaProjection#createVirtualDisplay 的单次调用,且每个 MediaProjection 实例只能使用一次。

处理配置变更

如果您的应用需要调用 MediaProjection#createVirtualDisplay 来处理配置更改(例如屏幕方向或屏幕尺寸更改),您可以按照以下步骤更新现有 MediaProjection 实例的 VirtualDisplay

  1. 使用新的宽度和高度调用 VirtualDisplay#resize
  2. VirtualDisplay#setSurface 提供具有新宽度和高度的新 Surface

注册回调

您的应用应注册一个回调,以处理用户不同意继续拍摄会话的情况。为此,请实现 Callback#onStop 并让您的应用发布所有相关资源(例如 VirtualDisplaySurface)。

如果您的应用未注册此回调,MediaProjection#createVirtualDisplay 会在应用调用此回调时抛出 IllegalStateException

更新后的非 SDK 限制

Android 14 包含更新后的受限非 SDK 接口列表(基于与 Android 开发者之间的协作以及最新的内部测试)。在限制使用非 SDK 接口之前,我们会尽可能确保有可用的公开替代方案。

如果您的应用并非以 Android 14 为目标平台,其中一些变更可能不会立即对您产生影响。然而,虽然您目前仍可以使用一些非 SDK 接口(具体取决于应用的目标 API 级别),但只要您使用任何非 SDK 方法或字段,终归存在导致应用出问题的显著风险。

如果您不确定自己的应用是否使用了非 SDK 接口,则可以测试您的应用来进行确认。如果您的应用依赖于非 SDK 接口,您应该开始计划迁移到 SDK 替代方案。然而,我们知道某些应用具有使用非 SDK 接口的有效用例。如果您无法为应用中的某项功能找到使用非 SDK 接口的替代方案,应请求新的公共 API

如需详细了解此 Android 版本中的变更,请参阅 Android 14 中有关限制非 SDK 接口的更新。如需全面了解有关非 SDK 接口的详细信息,请参阅对非 SDK 接口的限制