Accurately measure your code's performance within Android Studio.
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July 10, 2024 1.2.4 - 1.3.0-beta02 -

Declaring dependencies

To add a dependency on Benchmark, you must add the Google Maven repository to your project. Read Google's Maven repository for more information.


To use Macrobenchmark in your project, add the following dependencies to your build.gradle file for your macrobenchmark module:


dependencies {
  androidTestImplementation "androidx.benchmark:benchmark-macro-junit4:1.2.4"


dependencies {


To use Microbenchmark in your project, add the following dependencies to your build.gradle file for your microbenchmark module:


dependencies {
    androidTestImplementation "androidx.benchmark:benchmark-junit4:1.2.4"

android {
    defaultConfig {
        testInstrumentationRunner "androidx.benchmark.junit4.AndroidBenchmarkRunner"


dependencies {

android {
    defaultConfig {
        testInstrumentationRunner = "androidx.benchmark.junit4.AndroidBenchmarkRunner"

The Microbenchmark library also provides a Gradle plugin to use with your microbenchmark module. This plugin sets build configuration defaults for the module, sets up benchmark output copy to the host, and provides the ./gradlew lockClocks task.

To use the plugin, include the following line in the `plugins` block in your top-level build.gradle file:


plugins {
  id 'androidx.benchmark' version '1.2.4' apply false


plugins {
  id("androidx.benchmark") version "1.2.4" apply false

Then apply the plugin to your benchmark module's build.gradle file


plugins {
  id 'androidx.benchmark'


plugins {


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Create a new issue

See the Issue Tracker documentation for more information.

Version 1.3

Version 1.3.0-beta02

July 10, 2024

androidx.benchmark:benchmark-*:1.3.0-beta02 is released. Version 1.3.0-beta02 contains these commits.

Bug Fixes

  • Gracefully handle EXITCODE 2 when starting Perfetto to log a warning, but proceed.

Version 1.3.0-beta01

June 12, 2024

androidx.benchmark:benchmark-*:1.3.0-beta01 is released. Version 1.3.0-beta01 contains these commits.

API Changes

  • Renamed MethodTracing.affectsMeasurementOnThisDevice to AFFECTS_MEASUREMENT_ON_THIS_DEVICE for consistency. (I1bdfa)
  • Added experimental BlackHole.consume() api to prevent dead code elimination in microbenchmarks. (If6812, b/286091643)
  • Microbenchmark will now correctly throw to prevent method tracing from interfering with measurements. This occurs on certain devices when method tracing is forced on (via instrumentation args or MicrobenchmarkConfig), and if a measurement is attempted after a method trace. Affected devices are running API 26-30 or certain ART mainline module versions affected by this interference, and can be detected at runtime via ProfilerConfig.MethodTracing.affectsMeasurementOnThisDevice. (Iafb92, b/303660864)

Bug Fixes

  • Bumped max agp version recommended to 9.0.0-alpha01. (I5bbb0)
  • Added compilation mode to benchmark context (If5612, b/325512900)
  • Enable AIDL tracing by default (requires API 28) (Ia0af2, b/341852305)
  • Added additional information in benchmark context in JSON output:
    • context.artMainlineVersion - integer version of Art mainline module (if present on device, -1 otherwise)
    • - Equals android.os.Build.ID
    • - Equals android.os.Build.VERSION.CODENAME
    • - corresponds to first letter of pre-release codename (even on release builds) (Ie5020)
  • Fixes StackSampling to respect androidx.benchmark.profiling.sampleDurationSeconds (Ib1d53)
  • Change macro->common dependency to be api(), so it's easier to use e.g. PerfettoTrace and PerfettoConfig. (Icdae3, b/341851833)
  • Ensure mergeArtProfile and mergeStartupProfile tasks always wait for baseline profile generation. (I623d6, b/343086054)
  • Consider variant enable state when deciding whether variant should be enabled. (I5d19e, b/343249144)
  • Increased default start timeout for perfetto trace processor. (I87e8c, b/329145808)

Version 1.3.0-alpha05

May 14, 2024

androidx.benchmark:benchmark-*:1.3.0-alpha05 is released. Version 1.3.0-alpha05 contains these commits.

Bug Fixes

  • Throw clearer exception when macrobench metric returns zero values for all iterations (Iab58f, b/314931695)
  • Additional workaround rules added to microbench proguard rules, including support for listener rules and other observed warnings / errors. (I14d8f, b/329126308, b/339085669)
  • Method tracing runs as a separate phase during a Macrobenchmark, and it no longer affects measurements. (If9a50, b/285912360, b/336588271)
  • Added extra debugging suggestions to drop shader broadcast failure message. (I5efa6, b/325502725)

Version 1.3.0-alpha04

May 1, 2024

androidx.benchmark:benchmark-*:1.3.0-alpha04 is released. Version 1.3.0-alpha04 contains these commits.

API Changes

  • Added experimental MacrobenchmarkRule#measureRepeated variant which takes a custom PerfettoConfig for fully customized Perfetto trace recording. Note that incorrectly configured configs may cause built in Metric classes to fail. (Idfd3d, b/309841164, b/304038384)
  • Rename PowerMetric.deviceSupportsPowerEnergy to PowerMetric.deviceSupportsHighPrecisionTracking for clarity (I5b82f)
  • Added PowerMetric.deviceBatteryHasMinimumCharge() and PowerMetric.deviceSupportsPowerEnergy() to enable changing or skipping benchmarks based on device power measurement capability. (I6a591, b/322121218)

Bug Fixes

  • Added comparison with previous baseline profile (I824c8, b/269484510)
  • Added DSL to disable warnings (Ic4deb, b/331237001)
  • Changed exception to info log when benchmark variants are disabled (I8a517, b/332772491)
  • Make it simpler to capture method traces for a Macrobenchmark is scoped to the duration of the actual measureBlock(). Previously, it started at target process launch and only supported cold starts (Iee85a, b/300651094)
  • Avoid crashing when perfetto trace processor is slow to start (I98841, b/329145808)

Version 1.3.0-alpha03

April 17, 2024

androidx.benchmark:benchmark-*:1.3.0-alpha03 is released. Version 1.3.0-alpha03 contains these commits.

New Features

  • Adds public API PerfettoTraceProcessor.Session.queryMetrics APIs with JSON, textproto, and proto binary (undecoded) variants. These allow you to query metrics built into TraceProcessor (I54d7f, b/304038382)
  • Added profilerOutput to JSON output for easier tooling around profiling traces (e.g. perfetto, method traces). (I05ddd, b/332604449)
  • Added power tag to benchmark Perfetto Config. This captures, for example, wakelock tracepoints. (Icfe44, b/286551983)
  • Added inst argument androidx.benchmark.profiling.skipWhenDurationRisksAnr, can be set to false to avoid skipping method traces when expected duration may cause an ANR - strongly recommended to avoid in CI runs.
  • Added experimental inst argument androidx.benchmark.profiling.perfCompare.enable, set this to true to run comparison timing between measurement and profiling phases. Useful in e.g. evaluating overhead of method tracing. (I61fb4, b/329146942)

API Changes

  • Changed TraceSectionMetric.Mode to sealed class to enable future expansion without breaking exhaustive when statements (I71f7b)
  • Added TraceSectionMetric.Mode.Average and .Count, and reordered args so the more common argument (mode) was earlier in the arg list, reducing need for specifying parameter names. (Ibf0b0, b/315830077, b/322167531)
  • Renamed Metric.getResult to getMeasurements to match return type (I42595)

Bug Fixes

  • Fix to ensure benchmarks use generated baseline profiles when automaticGenerationDuringBuild is off (Ic144f, b/333024280)
  • Fix BaselineProfile gradle plugin property overrides to enable baseline profile generation and benchmarking when customizing a nonMinified or benchmark build type. (Ib8f05, b/324837887)
  • Fixed method traces flush in macrobenchmark, so that method traces should be fully captured and valid, even on slower devices. (I6349a, b/329904950)
  • Enable blocking start on Perfetto trace record to reduce risk of missing data at beginning of trace. Only supported on API 33+. (Ie6e41, b/310760059)
  • Added a warning when Android Test Orchestrator is used in benchmark modules, as this will cause per-module output JSON files to be repeatedly overwritten. (Ia1af6, b/286899049)
  • Force ',' (comma) thousands separators for consistency in Studio output, ignoring device locale (I3e921, b/313496656)
  • TraceSectionMetric now supports slices created using Trace.{begin|end}AsyncSection. (I91b32, b/300434906)
  • Added log.w / exception labels to all startup detection failures. This does not change current behavior (so some errors throw, and others silently fail to detect the startup), just makes it more understandable. Generally the ones that Log.w() and fail to report startup metrics are those where non-frame events are missing, exceptions are thrown when startup is detected except for frame timing information (from UI/RT slices). (Id240f, b/329145809)
  • Cancel background dexopt jobs before running a Macrobenchmark to reduce interference. (I989ed)
  • Added frameCount measurement to FrameTimingMetric to aid in discovery of scenarios where measurements change because the number of frames produced changed (new animations added, invalidation issues fixed). (I1e5aa)
  • Clarified that frameOverrunMs is the preferred metric for tracking when available in docs, and why. (I18749, b/329478323)

Version 1.3.0-alpha02

March 20, 2024

androidx.benchmark:benchmark-*:1.3.0-alpha02 is released. Version 1.3.0-alpha02 contains these commits.

New Features

  • Experimental R8 support in microbench via embedded proguard rules. Note that this support is experimental, and requires AGP 8.3 for minification of library module tests. Use the following to enable R8 minification/optimization in your benchmark module's build.gradle, which should lead to a significant performance increase, depending on workload. (I738a3, b/184378053)

    android {
        buildTypes.release.androidTest.enableMinification = true

Bug Fixes

  • Fixes method tracing warning to be on separate line from microbench output. (I0455c, b/328308833)

Version 1.3.0-alpha01

February 21, 2024

androidx.benchmark:benchmark-*:1.3.0-alpha01 is released. Version 1.3.0-alpha01 contains these commits.

API Changes

  • Renamed MicrobenchmarkConfig boolean parameters to avoid unnecessary word 'should' (Ia8f00, b/303387299)
  • Added BenchmarkRule.measureRepeatedOnMainThread so main thread benchmarks (e.g. ones touching Views or Compose UIs) can avoid triggering ANRs, especially during large suites in CI. (I5c86d)
  • Added FrameTimingGfxInfoMetric, an experimental alternate implementation of FrameTimingMetric with measurements coming directly from the platform, rather than extracted from the Perfetto trace. (I457cb, b/322232828)
  • Add the ability to dump an ART profile during individual warmUp iterations. (I17923)
  • Several changes to TraceSectionMetric API:
    • Add Mode.Min, Mode.Max
    • Add label argument to override section name as metric label
    • Added mode name to output to clarify metric meaning
    • Changed default to sum, as most usage of this metric is for repeated events Be aware of this changes in CI usage, as it may create discontinuities or break parsing. (Ic1e82, b/301892382, b/301955938)

Bug Fixes

  • Improved error message in baseline profile gradle plugin when specified managed device does not exist (Idea2b, b/313803289)
  • Fix for including library baseline profiles in AAR prior to AGP 8.3.0-alpha15 (I1d2af, b/313992099)
  • Fixed baseline and startup profile output url at the end of generation task (I802e5, b/313976958)
  • Adjusted data source timeouts to attempt to fix java.lang.IllegalStateException: Failed to stop [ProcessPid(processName=perfetto, pid=...)] (I8dc7d, b/323601788)
  • Add two instrumentation arguments for overriding shader dropping behavior to workaround crashes when benchmarking apps without ProfileInstaller 1.3:
    • androidx.benchmark.dropShaders.enable=true/false : can be used to skip all shader dropping (including that done in StartupMode.Cold launches), esp when benchmarking apps that don't yet use profileinstaller 1.3
    • androidx.benchmark.dropShaders.throwOnFailure=true/false : can be used to tolerate failures when trying to drop shaders, for example when benchmarking apps without profileinstaller 1.3 (I4f573)
  • Skip method tracing on UI thread when expected to take longer than a few seconds, and cleanup method traces when throwing. (I6e768)
  • Throw when filenames are longer than 200 chars to avoid unclear crashes when writing or post-processing files. (I4a5ab)
  • Fixes issue where unterminated frames at the beginning and end of the trace could be paired together, which would incorrectly report as a single extremely long frame. (I39353, b/322232828)
  • Use --skip verification on API 30+ when reinstalling a package on API 30-33 to clear ART profiles on user builds. This helps bypass Play Protect warnings that cause failures on some class of devices. (Ic9e36)
  • Use am force-stop to kill apps when not a system app like System UI or Launcher. (I5e028)
  • Macrobenchmark now waits for 1 second for the target application to flush an ART profile (previously it waited for 500 ms). (I85a50, b/316082056)
  • Improve FrameTimingMetric error when frames aren't produced, and always output link to trace when failing metric parsing to assist in diagnosing problem. (I956b9)
  • Fixed crash in FrameTimingMetric failing to parse frame id, especially on certain OEM devices. (Ia24bc, b/303823815, b/306235276)
  • Relaxed strictness of checks in FrameMetrics, and added more detail to error messages. (Iadede)

Version 1.2

Version 1.2.4

April 17, 2024

androidx.benchmark:benchmark-*:1.2.4 is released. Version 1.2.4 contains these commits.

Bug Fixes

  • Fixes baseline profile srcset not being set up in benchmark variants. Also fixes automaticGenerationDuringBuild in libraries causing a circular dependency. (I28ab7, b/333024280)
  • Use am force-stop to kill apps when not a system app like System UI or Launcher. This fixes StartupMode.COLD benchmarks crashing from "Package $package must not be running prior to cold start!" due to process kill not fully succeeding. (I5e028)

Version 1.2.3

January 24, 2024

androidx.benchmark:benchmark-*:1.2.3 is released. Version 1.2.3 contains these commits.

Bug Fixes

  • Removed exception from Baseline Profile Gradle Plugin when AGP version is 8.3.0 or higher.
  • Fix for including library baseline profiles in AAR prior to AGP 8.3.0-alpha15.

Version 1.2.2

December 1, 2023

androidx.benchmark:benchmark-*:1.2.2 is released. Version 1.2.2 contains these commits.

Baseline Profiles

Version 1.2.1

November 15, 2023

androidx.benchmark:benchmark-*:1.2.1 is released. Version 1.2.1 contains these commits.

New Features

Version 1.2.0

October 18, 2023

androidx.benchmark:benchmark-*:1.2.0 is released. Version 1.2.0 contains these commits.

Important changes since 1.1.0

Baseline Profiles

  • New Baseline Profile Gradle Plugin automates capturing and including baseline profiles in your test and build workflow.
  • BaselineProfileRule.collect now stable, a streamlined and simplified version of the previous experimental BaselineProfileRule.collectBaselineProfile API
    • Just specify packageName, and drive your app
  • For libraries generating baseline profiles, you can now filter the rules generated either in code (BaselineProfileRule.collect argument), or even more simply in the gradle plugin
  • Fixes


  • Compilation
    • Macrobenchmark now correctly fully resets compilation state for each compile - this requires reinstalling the APK prior to Android 14, so benchmarking on Android 14+ is strongly recommended if you want to persist state (like user login) in what's being measured.
    • You can also work around this by controlling app compilation separately, and skipping compilation with CompilationMode.Ignore() or instrumentation argument
  • Instrumentation Arguments

    • Support for androidx.benchmark.dryRunMode.enable instrumentation argument, (already available in microbenchmark) for quicker validation runs (e.g. when creating the benchmark, or in presubmit)
    • Support for androidx.benchmark.profiling.mode=StackSampling and MethodTracing.
    • Added androidx.benchmark.enabledRules to allow runtime filtering baseline profile vs macrobenchmark rule tests
    • Added androidx.benchmark.perfettoSdkTracing.enable argument to enable tracing with tracing-perfetto, e.g. Compose recomposition tracing. Note that when used with StartupMode.COLD, timing will be significantly affected as the tracing library is loaded and enabled during app startup.
  • Requirements

    • Macrobenchmark now requires ProfileInstaller 1.3.0 or greater in the target app, to enable profile capture / reset, and shader cache clearing.
  • New Experimental Metric APIs

  • Fixes

    • Fixed crashes when installing or extracting profiles from an app installed from multiple APKs (e.g. from app bundle).
    • Fixed FrameTimingMetric ignoring frames with inconsistent frame IDs (generally, frames during ripples on API 31+) (I747d2, b/279088460)
    • Fixed parsing errors on traces > 64MB (Ief831, b/269949822)
    • Clarified errors when device (especially emulator) OS image not correctly configured for tracing, or compilation
    • Skip battery level check for devices without battery (micro and macro)
    • Improved file output, with more clear errors for invalid output directories, and safer defaults
    • Improved stability of StartupMode.COLD by consistently dropping the shader cache (also exposed via MacrobenchmarkScope.dropShaderCache)
    • Fixed leanback fallback for startActivityAndWait.


  • Features
    • Profiling was moved to a separate phase, after other metrics, so one test run can display both accurate timing and profiling results.
  • Experimental APIs
    • Added experimental MicrobenchmarkConfig API for defining custom metrics and configuring tracing and profiling. Can be used to capture method traces, or capture tracepoints (but be aware of tracing overhead).
    • Added experimental APIs for controlling BenchmarkState separately from BenchmarkRule, without JUnit
    • Added experimental PerfettoTrace record to enable capturing Perfetto traces, with custom configuration, separate from benchmark APIs.
  • Fixes
    • Workaround missing leading whitespaces in Android Studio benchmark output.
    • Fix issue where warnings could fail to print in Android Studio benchmark output.
    • Fixed SampledProfiling crash on Android 13 (API 33) and higher.
    • Massively improved performance of dryRunMode by skipping IsolationActivity and Perfetto tracing (Up to 10x faster dry run mode on older OS versions).

Version 1.2.0-rc02

October 6, 2023

androidx.benchmark:benchmark-*:1.2.0-rc02 is released. Version 1.2.0-rc02 contains these commits.

Bug Fixes

  • Fix Benchmark file output to no longer break BaselineProfile Plugin file copying. Files were generated and copied off device, but had been renamed such that the gradle plugin wouldn't see them. (I8dbcc, b/303034735, b/296453339)
  • Clarified tracing-perfetto loading error messages when injecting from macrobenchmark module into target application.

Version 1.2.0-rc01

September 20, 2023

androidx.benchmark:benchmark-*:1.2.0-rc01 is released. Version 1.2.0-rc01 contains these commits.

Bug Fixes

  • An exception (with remedy instructions) is now thrown when Perfetto SDK tracing fails to initialize in a Benchmark. (I6c878, b/286228781)
  • Fix OOM crash when converting ART method trace -> perfetto format. (I106bd, b/296905344)
  • (Macrobenchmark) Clarified method tracing label when linked in Studio test output, and fixed method tracing filenames to be unique on device/host, so they won't be overwritten when more than one benchmark is run. (I08e65, b/285912360)
  • Ensures that the device is awake when capturing a baseline profile. (I503fc)

Version 1.2.0-beta05

August 30, 2023

androidx.benchmark:benchmark-*:1.2.0-beta05 is released. Version 1.2.0-beta05 contains these commits.

New Features

  • The Baseline Profile Gradle Plugin now supports Android Gradle Plugin 8.3. (aosp/2715214)

Version 1.2.0-beta04

August 23, 2023

androidx.benchmark:benchmark-*:1.2.0-beta04 is released. Version 1.2.0-beta04 contains these commits.

New Features

  • The Baseline Profiles Gradle plugin now supports Android Gradle Plugin 8.3. (aosp/2715214)

Bug Fixes

  • Fix failures in writing / moving and pulling files (especially those from parameterized tests) by sanitizing output file names further, avoiding '=' and ':' in output file names. (I759d8)

Version 1.2.0-beta03

August 9, 2023

androidx.benchmark:benchmark-*:1.2.0-beta03 is released. Version 1.2.0-beta03 contains these commits.

API Changes

  • Added argument to filter TraceSectionMetric to only the target package, on by default (Ia219b, b/292208786)

Bug Fixes

  • Renamed fullTracing.enable instrumentation argument to perfettoSdkTracing.enable for consistency with artifact name, and other references. fullTracing.enable will continue to work as a fallback. (I7cc00)
  • Benchmark library internal tracepoints (including microbenchmark loop/phase tracing) will now show up in Studio system trace viewer, and nest under the correct process in Perfetto. (I6b2e7, b/293510459)
  • Removed macrobenchmark NOT-PROFILEABLE error on API 31+, and skip profileable check on eng/userdebug rooted devices. (I2abac, b/291722507)
  • When using Dex Layout Optimizations, startup profile rules are also now considered as baseline profile rules. (aosp/2684246, b/293889189)

Version 1.2.0-beta02

July 26, 2023

androidx.benchmark:benchmark-*:1.2.0-beta02 is released. Version 1.2.0-beta02 contains these commits.

API Changes

  • Added experimental APIs for microbench custom metrics and configuration (e.g. profiler, and tracing). (I86101, b/291820856)

Bug Fixes

  • Report error in macrobench when OS is misconfigured for tracing, as was recently fixed in API 26/28 ARM64 emulators. (I0a328, b/282191686)
  • Added detail to compilation reset failure to suggest updating emulator, as some emulators have recently fixed this issue. (I8c815, b/282191686)
  • Make androidx.test.uiautomator:uiautomator:2.2.0 an api instead of an implementation dependency. (I1981e)

Version 1.2.0-beta01

July 18, 2023

androidx.benchmark:benchmark-*:1.2.0-beta01 is released. Version 1.2.0-beta01 contains these commits.

Bug Fixes

  • Fix warnings being sometimes suppressed in Benchmark output in Studio, and workaround leading whitespaces from Benchmark output not showing up in Studio (Ia61d0, b/227205461, b/286306579, b/285912360)
  • Fixed comment for FrameTimingMetric. The submetric is named frameDurationCpuMs. (Ib097f, b/288830934).

Version 1.2.0-alpha16

June 21, 2023

androidx.benchmark:benchmark-*:1.2.0-alpha16 is released. Version 1.2.0-alpha16 contains these commits.

API Changes

  • BaselineProfileRule.collectBaselineProfile() API has been renamed to BaselineProfileRule.collect(). (I4b665)

Bug Fixes

  • Macrobenchmark support for androidx.benchmark.profiling.mode = MethodTracing. (I7ad37, b/285912360)
  • Microbenchmark profiling moved to a separate phase, so it occurs in sequence after measurement, instead of replacing it. MethodTracing trace sections are also now included in the captured Perfetto trace, if present. (I9f657, b/285014599)
  • Add count measurement to TraceSectionMetric with Mode.Sum. (Ic121a, b/264398606)

Version 1.2.0-alpha15

June 7, 2023

androidx.benchmark:benchmark-*:1.2.0-alpha15 is released. Version 1.2.0-alpha15 contains these commits.

New Features

  • Added experimental MemoryUsageMetric for tracking memory usage of a target application. (I56453, b/133147125, b/281749311)
  • Add support for fully custom Perfetto configs with PerfettoTrace.record (If9d75, b/280460183)
  • Added property to skip baseline profile generation. Usage: ./gradlew assemble -Pandroidx.baselineprofile.skipgeneration. (I37fda, b/283447020)

API Changes

  • The collectBaselineProfile API always generates stable baseline profiles. The collectStableBaselineProfile API has been removed and collectBaselineProfile should be used instead. (I17262, b/281078707)
  • Changed BaselineProfileRule's filterPredicate arg to non-null, with a equivalent default value so that the default filter behavior is more clear in docs. (I3816e)

Bug Fixes

  • Disable IsolationActivity and Perfetto tracing in dryRunMode to significantly improve performance, as these were majority of runtime. (Ie4f7d)
  • Support for call stack sampling in Macrobenchmarks using instrumentation test arguments androidx.benchmark.profiling.mode=StackSampling and androidx.benchmark.profiling.sampleFrequency. (I1d13b, b/282188489)
  • Fixes crash when dropping shaders on Android U (API 34), as well as on emulators. (I031ca, b/274314544)

Version 1.2.0-alpha14

May 3, 2023

androidx.benchmark:benchmark-*:1.2.0-alpha14 is released. Version 1.2.0-alpha14 contains these commits.

Bug Fixes

  • Fix FrameTimingMetric ignoring frames with inconsistent frame IDs. This would cause some animations on recent platform versions (API 31+) to ignore many frames while RenderThread was animating (e.g. during a ripple). (I747d2, b/279088460)
  • Fixed trace processor parsing for traces larger than 64Mb. (Ief831, b/269949822)
  • Fixed baseline profile generation on Android U failing because of the different output of pm dump-profiles command. (Id1392, b/277645214)
  • Fix GPU clock locking script to compare strings correctly (I53e54, b/213935715)

Version 1.2.0-alpha13

April 5, 2023

androidx.benchmark:benchmark-*:1.2.0-alpha13 is released. Version 1.2.0-alpha13 contains these commits.

API Changes

  • Added profile type parameter when generating baseline profiles to support upcoming startup profile feature (Ie20d7, b/275093123)
  • Added new experimental TraceMetric API for defining fully custom metrics based on content of a Perfetto trace. (I4ce31, b/219851406)
  • Add an experimental metric to determine the number of page faults during a benchmark. (I48db0)

Version 1.2.0-alpha12

March 22, 2023

androidx.benchmark:benchmark-*:1.2.0-alpha12 is released. Version 1.2.0-alpha12 contains these commits.

New Features

  • The new baseline profile gradle plugin is released in alpha version, making it easier to generate a baseline profile and simplifying the developer workflow.

API Changes

  • Removed Perfetto tracing support on API 21 and 22, which includes both Microbenchmarks and the experimental PerfettoTrace APIs. Prior to this version, UiAutomation connections were unreliable on some devices. (I78e8c)
  • Added public experimental API for PerfettoTraceProcessor to enable parsing trace content. This is a step toward fully custom metrics based on Perfetto trace data. (I2659e, b/219851406)

Version 1.2.0-alpha11

March 8, 2023

androidx.benchmark:benchmark-*:1.2.0-alpha11 is released. Version 1.2.0-alpha11 contains these commits.

Bug Fixes

  • Fixed crashes in MacrobenchmarkRule and BaselineProfileRule when reinstalling or extracting profiles from an app bundle with multiple APKs. (I0d8c8, b/270587281)

Version 1.2.0-alpha10

February 22, 2023

androidx.benchmark:benchmark-*:1.2.0-alpha10 is released. Version 1.2.0-alpha10 contains these commits.

New Features

  • On Android 14+, Macrobenchmark no longer reinstalls target applications to reset compilation state, thanks to a new platform feature. Previously it was necessary to have a rooted device, or to deal with all application state (e.g. user login) being removed before each benchmark runs. (I9b08c, b/249143766)

Bug Fixes

  • Fix DryRunMode to no longer crash with empty profile, due to compilation skipping. Instead, it runs a single iteration and extracts the profile to ensure something is captured. (I2f05d, b/266403227)
  • Fix PowerMetric crash when checking for powerstats presence on old API levels. (5faaf9, b/268253898)

Version 1.2.0-alpha09

January 11, 2023

androidx.benchmark:benchmark-*:1.2.0-alpha09 is released. Version 1.2.0-alpha09 contains these commits.

Bug Fixes

  • Enabled passing None to androidx.benchmark.enabledRules instrumentation arg to disable all benchmarks / baseline profile generation. (I3d7fd, b/258671856)
  • Fix PerfettoTrace capture in app modules (i.e. non-self-instrumenting test APKs) (I12cfc)
  • Fixed baseline profile adb pull argument order in Studio output (I958d1, b/261781624)
  • Arm emulator api 33 is now correctly recognized as such when trying to run a macrobenchmark and will correctly print the warning. (69133b,b/262209591)
  • Skip battery level check on devices without battery in Macrobenchmark (fe4114, b/232448937)

Version 1.2.0-alpha08

December 7, 2022

androidx.benchmark:benchmark-*:1.2.0-alpha08 is released. Version 1.2.0-alpha08 contains these commits.

API Changes

  • Added experimental new APIs PerfettoTrace.record {} and PerfettoTraceRule to capture Perfetto traces (also known as System Traces) as part of a test, to inspect test behavior and performance. (I3ba16)
  • BaselineProfileRule now accepts a filter predicate instead of a list of package prefixes. This gives the test full control on filtering. (I93240)
  • Add an experimental API BaselineProfileRule.collectStableBaselineProfile which waits until a baseline profile is stable for N iterations. (I923f3)
  • Add the ability to specify an output file name prefix when generating baseline profiles using BaselineProfileRule. (I7b59f, b/260318655)

Bug Fixes

  • Improve safety of file output writing, which should prevent output files from silently not being written / appended, especially on API 21/22. (If8c44, b/227510293)
  • Fix simpleperf trace output to create and place the file correctly. This should also more generally fix issues where a file is unsuccessfully pulled by gradle. (I12a1c, b/259424099)
  • Improve profileinstaller error message printed when profileinstaller is too old. This now tells you to update profileinstaller version (1.2.1) for measuring baseline profiles on API 31 through 33, instead of saying it's not supported. (Ia517f, b/253519888)
  • Fix several shell command failures onerror message Print needed API <=23, including failed perfetto capture binary setup and trace capture failures (Ib6b87, b/258863685)
  • Automatically sort generated profile rules to minimize the number of changes as they change over time (when checking-in profile rules into source control). (Ie2509)
  • Fixed crash on unrooted builds below Android 13 (API 33) with message Expected no stderr from echo 3 > /proc/sys/vm/drop_caches (I6c245, b/259508183)

Known Issues - MacrobenchmarkScope.dropShaderCache() may crash due to a missing broadcast registry in profileinstaller manifest, which has not yet been released. (I5c728, b/258619948) To workaround the issue in profileinstaller:1.3.0-alpha02, add the following to your application's (not your benchmark's) AndroidManifest.xml:

  <!-- workaround bug in profileinstaller 1.3.0-alpha02, remove when updating to alpha03+ -->
        <action android:name="androidx.profileinstaller.action.BENCHMARK_OPERATION" />

Version 1.2.0-alpha07

November 9, 2022

androidx.benchmark:benchmark-*:1.2.0-alpha07 is released. Version 1.2.0-alpha07 contains these commits.

API Changes

  • Adds PowerMetric API for measuring energy and power in Macrobenchmarks. (Ife601, b/220183779)
  • Fixed MacrobenchmarkScope.dropShaderCache() to actually drop the shader cache. This removes roughly 20ms of noise from StartupMode.COLD benchmarks, as shaders are now consistently cleared each iteration. Previously, Partial compilation using warmup iterations would report incorrectly fast numbers, as shader caching was more likely to happen during warmup. This fix requires either a rooted device, or using profileinstaller:1.3.0-alpha02 in the target app. For ProfileInstaller library’s API changes, please refer to ProfileInstaller 1.30-alpha02 page. (Ia5171, b/231455742)
  • Added TraceSectionMode("label", Mode.Sum), allowing measurement of total time spent on multiple trace sections with the same label. For instance, TraceSectionMetric("inflate", Mode.Sum) will report a metric inflateMs for the total time in a macrobenchmark spent on inflation. Also removed API 29 requirement, as TraceSectionMetric works together with androidx.tracing.Trace back to lower API levels, with the use of forceEnableAppTracing within the target app. (Id7b68, b/231455742)

Bug Fixes

  • Improved safety of all internal shell commands by validating all output/errors. (I5984d, b/255402908, b/253094958)
  • Specify device in baseline profile adb pull command, so the pull command can be simply copied if multiple devices are connected (up to one emulator) (I6ac6c, b/223359380)
  • Add error if macrobenchmark test apk isn't set up as self-instrumenting. This error prevents macrobenchmarking from within the target app's process. In process, macrobench wouldn't be able to compile/kill/cold start the app, or control its own permissions (I4279b)
  • Fixed an issue in measureRepeated() where StartupMode.COLD wouldn't kill the target process after setupBlock. Now setupBlock interacting with the app will not leave the app process running, and an invalid cold start measurement. (I8ebb7)

Version 1.2.0-alpha06

October 24, 2022

androidx.benchmark:benchmark-*:1.2.0-alpha06 is released. Version 1.2.0-alpha06 contains these commits.

API Changes

  • BaselineProfileRule no longer requires root on Android 13 (API 33), and is no longer experimental. (Ie0a7d, b/250083467, b/253094958)
    • This change also fixes how profiles from an app are flushed to disk on unrooted devices, but requires updating the target app's profileinstaller dependency.
    • To use BaselineProfileRule or CompilationMode.Partial(warmupIterations) on an unrooted device, you must also update your target app to use androidx.profileinstaller.profileinstaller:1.3.0-alpha01. This enables flushing the profile to disk correctly, so that it can be compiled/extracted.

Bug Fixes

Version 1.2.0-alpha05

October 5, 2022

androidx.benchmark:benchmark-*:1.2.0-alpha05 is released. Version 1.2.0-alpha05 contains these commits.

Bug Fixes

  • Fix frame breakdown in Studio system trace viewer for benchmark captured traces (I3f3ae, b/239677443)
  • Correct FrameTimingMetric to list FrameOverrun as requiring API 31 instead of 29 (I716dd, b/220702554)
  • Set iteration in BaselineProfileRule, and throw clearly if target package not installed (was already done for MacrobenchmarkRule). (Ic09a3, b/227991471)

Version 1.2.0-alpha04

September 21, 2022

androidx.benchmark:benchmark-*:1.2.0-alpha04 is released. Version 1.2.0-alpha04 contains these commits.

New Features

  • Add support for dryRunMode.enable instrumentation argument to macrobenchmark (already available in micro) for faster local development, and validating app automation (e.g. in presubmit). This overrides iterations to 1, skips compilation, suppresses all configuration errors, and disables measurement .json file output. (Ib51b4, b/175149857)

    On Gradle command line:

    ./gradlew macrobenchmark:cC -P android.testInstrumentationRunnerArguments.androidx.benchmark.dryRunMode.enable=true

    In build.gradle:

    android {
        defaultConfig {
            testInstrumentationRunnerArgument 'androidx.benchmark.dryRunMode.enable', 'true'

Bug Fixes

  • Fixed StartupTimingMetric to no longer require measured Activities to be launched through MacrobenchmarkScope.startActivityAndWait(). This means the metric can pick up launches from e.g. notifications, Context.startActivity(), in-app Activity based navigation, or shell commands. (Ia2de6, b/245414235)
  • Fix bug where startActivityAndWait would timeout trying to wait for launch completion on emulators by reducing strictness of frame detection. (Ibe2c6, b/244594339, b/228946895)

Version 1.2.0-alpha03

September 7, 2022

androidx.benchmark:benchmark-*:1.2.0-alpha03 is released. Version 1.2.0-alpha03 contains these commits.

New Features

  • Added experimental APIs for using BenchmarkState independently, separate from BenchmarkRule / JUnit4. (Id478f, b/228489614)

Bug Fixes

Version 1.2.0-alpha02

August 24, 2022

androidx.benchmark:benchmark-*:1.2.0-alpha02 is released. Version 1.2.0-alpha02 contains these commits.

API Changes

  • Default to am force stop for MacrobenchmarkScope.killProcess(), even when rooted, except during Baseline Profile generation. This can be overridden with an optional boolean argument. (02cce9, b/241214097)

Bug Fixes

Version 1.2.0-alpha01

July 27, 2022

androidx.benchmark:benchmark-*:1.2.0-alpha01 is released. Version 1.2.0-alpha01 contains these commits.

New Features

  • New tracing-perfetto-common component allowing tooling to enable Perfetto SDK tracing in an app that exposes it (I2cc7f)
  • Added androidx.benchmark.enabledRules instrumentation argument to enable filtering macrobenchmark runs to just benchmarks, or just baseline profile generation. Pass in 'Macrobenchmark', or 'BaselineProfile' to just run one type of test, e.g. when just generating BaselineProfiles on an emulator. Comma-separated list also Supported. (I756b7, b/230371561)

    E.g. in Your macrobenchmark's build.gradle:

    android {
        defaultConfig {
            testInstrumentationRunnerArgument 'androidx.benchmark.enabledRules', 'BaselineProfile'

    Or from the Gradle command line:

    ./gradlew macrobenchmark:cC -P android.testInstrumentationRunnerArguments.androidx.benchmark.enabledRules=BaselineProfile

API Changes

  • Added new PowerMetric for measuring energy and power tasks in benchmarks. (I9f39b, b/220183779)
  • Added a new compilation mode CompilationMode.Ignore to skip profile reset and compilation. (Ibbcf8, b/230453509)
  • Added a new parameter to BaselineProfileRule#collectBaselineProfile to filter output file by package names (If7338, b/220146561)
  • Enables developer to discharge device to measure power drain. (I6a6cb)
  • Added the ability to clear shader cache in MacrobenchmarkScope. (I32122)
  • Enables developer to configure display of metric type and detail desired subsystem categories. (I810c9)
  • Previously an UnsupportedOperationException was thrown in the benchmark if run on an unsupported device. Now UOE only occurs if the metric is used on the unsupported device (ie: PowerMetric.configure). (I5cf20, b/227229375)
  • Added TotalPowerMetric and TotalEnergyMetric for measuring total power and energy in each system category in macrobenchmarks. (I3b26b, b/224557371)

Bug Fixes

  • Fixed an issue where compiled methods were not correctly being reset between each macrobenchmark on unrooted builds. This unfortunately requires reinstalling the apk each iteration, which will clear application data for each macrobenchmark. (I31c74, b/230665435)
  • Fix trace recording crash on API 21/22 (If7fd6, b/227509388, b/227510293, b/227512788)
  • Overhaul activity launch completion detection to fix 'Unable to read any metrics' exception in startup macrobenchmarks. (Ia517c)

Version 1.1.1

Version 1.1.1

November 9, 2022

androidx.benchmark:benchmark-*:1.1.1 is released. Version 1.1.1 contains these commits.

Bug Fixes

  • Fixes android.system.ErrnoException: open failed: EACCES which would occur on some Android11 (API 30)+ devices. This is a cherry-pick of a fix from 1.2.0-alpha01. (aosp/2072249)

Version 1.1.0

Version 1.1.0

June 15, 2022

androidx.benchmark:benchmark-*:1.1.0 is released. Version 1.1.0 contains these commits.

  • This version is identical to androidx.benchmark:benchmark-*:1.1.0-rc03.

Important changes since 1.0.0

Version 1.1.0-rc03

June 1, 2022

androidx.benchmark:benchmark-*:1.1.0-rc03 is released. Version 1.1.0-rc03 contains these commits.

Bug Fixes

Version 1.1.0-rc02

May 11, 2022

androidx.benchmark:benchmark-*:1.1.0-rc02 is released. Version 1.1.0-rc02 contains these commits.

  • Note that this release includes a behavior change, as apps are now fully reinstalled in between each benchmark to ensure accurate measurements.

Bug Fixes/Behavior Changes

  • Fixed an issue where app compilation was not correctly reset between macrobenchmarks, and not reset at all on unrooted builds. This fixes many cases where running multiple tests would result in CompilationMode having little to no effect on measurements. To workaround this problem, the target app is now fully reinstalling each test method, which will clear application data between each macrobenchmark. (I31c74, b/230665435)

  • As this prevents apps from setting up state before tests, it is now possible to skip compilation / reinstallation to enable working around this. You can for example fully compile the target with a shell command cmd package compile -f -m speed <package>, and then bypass macrobenchmark's compilation step.

    E.g. in Your macrobenchmark's build.gradle:

    android {
        defaultConfig {
            testInstrumentationRunnerArgument 'androidx.benchmark.compilation.enabled, 'false'

    Or from the Gradle command line:

    ./gradlew macrobenchmark:cC -P android.testInstrumentationRunnerArguments.androidx.benchmark.compilation.enabled=false
  • Made it possible to share a module between macrobenchmarks and baseline profile generating tests by adding androidx.benchmark.enabledRules instrumentation argument. Pass in 'Macrobenchmark', or 'BaselineProfile' to just run one type of test, e.g. when generating BaselineProfiles on an emulator. (I756b7, b/230371561)

    E.g. in Your macrobenchmark's build.gradle:

    android {
        defaultConfig {
            testInstrumentationRunnerArgument 'androidx.benchmark.enabledRules', 'BaselineProfile'

    Or from the Gradle command line:

    ./gradlew macrobenchmark:cC -P android.testInstrumentationRunnerArguments.androidx.benchmark.enabledRules=BaselineProfile

Version 1.1.0-rc01

April 20, 2022

androidx.benchmark:benchmark-*:1.1.0-rc01 is released. Version 1.1.0-rc01 contains these commits.

Bug Fixes

  • Baseline profile output links in Android Studio now use a unique file name. This way the output always reflects the latest results of using a BaselineProfileRule. ( aosp/2057008, b/228203086 )

Version 1.1.0-beta06

April 6, 2022

androidx.benchmark:benchmark-*:1.1.0-beta06 is released. Version 1.1.0-beta06 contains these commits.

Bug Fixes

  • Fix trace recording crash on API 21/22 (If7fd6, b/227509388)
  • Overhaul activity launch completion detection to fix 'Unable to read any metrics' exception in startup macrobenchmarks. (Ia517c)
  • Fix startup metrics for Macrobenchmarks when CompilationMode.None() is used. Before this change, CompilationMode.Partial() would appear to be slower than Compilation.None(). (611ac9).

Version 1.1.0-beta05

March 23, 2022

androidx.benchmark:benchmark-*:1.1.0-beta05 is released. Version 1.1.0-beta05 contains these commits.

Bug Fixes

Version 1.1.0-beta04

February 23, 2022

androidx.benchmark:benchmark-*:1.1.0-beta04 is released. Version 1.1.0-beta04 contains these commits.

Bug Fixes

  • Fix missing metrics on Android 10, and NoSuchElementException caused by process names not being captured correctly in traces. (Ib4c17, b/218668335)

  • Use PowerManager for thermal throttling detection on Q (API 29) and higher. This significantly reduces frequency of false positives in thermal throttling detection (benchmark retry after 90 second cooldown), and speeds up benchmarks significantly on user builds. It also provides throttle detection even when clocks are locked (if they're locked too high for the device's physical environment). (I9c027, b/217497678, b/131755853)

  • Filter simpleperf sampled profiling to measureRepeated thread only to simplify inspection (Ic3e12, b/217501939)

  • Support metrics from named UI subprocesses in multi-process apps (Ice6c0, b/215988434)

  • Filter Baseline Profile rules to target Android 9 (SDK 28). aosp/1980331 b/216508418

  • Skip Profile Installation when using Compilation.None(). Additionally, report warnings when the app is using an older version of androidx.profileinstaller and Android Gradle Plugin. aosp/1977029

Version 1.1.0-beta03

February 9, 2022

androidx.benchmark:benchmark-*:1.1.0-beta03 is released. Version 1.1.0-beta03 contains these commits.

API Changes

  • Added AudioUnderrunMetric into macrobenchmark library under experimental flag to allow detection of audio underruns (Ib5972)
  • BaselineProfileRule no longer accepts a setup block as this functioned the same as the profileBlock. (Ic7dfe, b/215536447)

    For e.g.

    fun collectBaselineProfile() {
            packageName = PACKAGE_NAME,
            setupBlock = {
            profileBlock = {
                // ...
    fun collectBaselineProfile() {
            packageName = PACKAGE_NAME,
            profileBlock = {
                // ...

Bug Fixes

  • Fixed issue where microbench profiler traces would fail to be updated in subsequent runs when linked in Studio output (I5ae4d, b/214917025)
  • Prevent compilation shell commands on API 23 (Ice380)
  • Renamed FrameCpuTime -> FrameDurationCpu, FrameUiTime -> FrameDurationUi to clarify these are durations, not timestamps, and to match prefixes. (I0eba3, b/216337830)

Version 1.1.0-beta02

January 26, 2022

androidx.benchmark:benchmark-*:1.1.0-beta02 is released. Version 1.1.0-beta02 contains these commits.

Bug Fixes

  • Microbenchmark Stack Sampling / Method Tracing Profile results are now linked in Studio output, similar to other profiling outputs, and do not suppress the allocation metric. (Idcb65, b/214440748, b/214253245)
  • BaselineProfileRule now prints the adb pull command in logcat and Studio output for pulling generated BaselineProfile text file. (f08811)

Version 1.1.0-beta01

January 12, 2022

androidx.benchmark:benchmark-*:1.1.0-beta01 is released. Version 1.1.0-beta01 contains these commits.

Bug Fixes

  • Fixes profiler argument enable being ignored. (I37373, b/210619998)
  • Removed deprecated CompliationModes (I98186, b/213467659)
  • Switched baseline profile arg of CompilationMode.Partial to enum for clarity. (Id67ea)

Version 1.1.0-alpha13

December 15, 2021

androidx.benchmark:benchmark-*:1.1.0-alpha13 is released. Version 1.1.0-alpha13 contains these commits.

API Changes

  • Add low-overhead System Tracing to microbench output on Android Q (API 29+). Note that this does not currently capture custom tracing (via android.os.Trace or androidx.tracing Jetpack APIs) to avoid affecting results. This tracing should be useful in diagnosing instability, especially from sources outside the benchmark. (I298be, b/205636583, b/145598917)
  • Clarify CompilationModes into three classes - Full, None, Partial. Previously they were inconsistently named after compilation arguments (which we now treat as implementation details) and features. This makes the tradeoffs, potential combinations, and behavior across platform versions more clear. (I3d7bf, b/207132597)
  • Setup and measure are now always in pairs, in order. You can now query the package name and iteration (though the iteration may be null in certain warmup scenarios). (Id3b68, b/208357448, b/208369635)

Bug Fixes

  • Fixed CompilationMode.Speed incorrectly treated as None (I01137)

Version 1.1.0-alpha12

November 17, 2021

androidx.benchmark:benchmark-*:1.1.0-alpha12 is released. Version 1.1.0-alpha12 contains these commits.

New Features

  • Add experimental TraceSectionMetric for custom trace-based timing measurements. (I99db1, b/204572664)

Bug Fixes

  • Wake device each iteration, to ensure UI can be tested - requires lockscreen is disabled. (Ibfa28, b/180963442)
  • Fixes multiple crashes in StackSampling profiling mode on emulators and non-rooted devices (Icdbda, b/202719335)
  • Removed 0.5 second sleep at the end of each iteration - if you see missing metrics with this change, please file a bug. (Iff6aa)
  • Reduce chances of dropped data, and lower memory overhead from tracing (Id2544, b/199324831, b/204448861)
  • Reduce trace size by ~40% by switching to compact sched storage format. (Id5fb6, b/199324831)
  • Updated implementations of startup metrics to always end at end of renderthread. This will be more contistent across platform versions, and more closely map to in-app measurements. (Ic6b55)

Version 1.1.0-alpha11

November 3, 2021

androidx.benchmark:benchmark-*:1.1.0-alpha11 is released. Version 1.1.0-alpha11 contains these commits.

API Changes

  • Macrobenchmark now has a minSdkVersion of 23. (If2655)
  • Adds a new experimental BaselineProfileRule which is capable of generating baseline profiles for app's critical user journey. Detailed documentation to follow. (Ibbefa, b/203692160)
  • Removes measureRepeated interface variant, which was added for java callers, as it caused ambiguity in completing/resolving the method. Java callers will again need to return Unit.Instance from measureRepeated. If this is an inconvenience, please file a bug, we can revisit this in a future version. (Ifb23e, b/204331495)

Version 1.1.0-alpha10

October 27, 2021

androidx.benchmark:benchmark-*:1.1.0-alpha10 is released. Version 1.1.0-alpha10 contains these commits.

API Changes

  • Backport StartupTimingMetric to work back to API 23. This new implementation also better handles reportFullyDrawn() to wait until corresponding content has been rendered. (If3ac9, b/183129298)
  • Added JvmOverloads to multiple MacrobenchmarkScope methods for Java callers. (I644fe, b/184546459)
  • Provide alternative MacrobenchmarkRule.measureRepeated function that uses a Consumer<MacrobenchmarkScope> for idiomatic usage in Java language. (If74ab, b/184546459)

Bug Fixes

  • Fix for traces not starting early enough, and missing metric data. This is expected to fix "Unable to read any metrics during benchmark" exceptions that were caused by the library itself. (I6dfcb, b/193827052, b/200302931)
  • FrameNegativeSlack has been renamed to FrameOverrun to clarify its meaning - how much the frame went over its time budget. (I6c2aa, b/203008701)

Version 1.1.0-alpha09

October 13, 2021

androidx.benchmark:benchmark-*:1.1.0-alpha09 is released. Version 1.1.0-alpha09 contains these commits.

Bug Fixes

Version 1.1.0-alpha08

September 29, 2021

androidx.benchmark:benchmark-*:1.1.0-alpha08 is released. Version 1.1.0-alpha08 contains these commits.

API Changes

  • Enable scrolling macrobenchmarks to run back to API 23 (If39c2, b/183129298)
  • Add new type of sampled metric to UI and JSON output, focused on percentiles of multiple samples per iteration. (I56247, b/199940612)
  • Switch to floating point metrics throughout the benchmark libraries (truncated in the Studio UI). (I69249, b/197008210)

Version 1.1.0-alpha07

September 1, 2021

androidx.benchmark:benchmark-*:1.1.0-alpha07 is released. Version 1.1.0-alpha07 contains these commits.

API Changes

  • Raised min API to 21 to reflect the intended lowest API level to be supported in the future. Current min API supported continues to be conveyed via RequiredApi(), and is currently 29 (I440d6, b/183129298)

Bug Fixes

  • Fixes ProfileInstaller to make it easier for apps using baseline profiles to run MacroBenchmarks using CompilationMode.BaselineProfile. (I42657, b/196074999) NOTE: requires also updating to androidx.profileinstaller:profileinstaller:1.1.0-alpha04 or greater.
  • StartupMode.COLD + CompilationMode.None benchmarks are now more stable. (I770cd, b/196074999)

Version 1.1.0-alpha06

August 18, 2021

androidx.benchmark:benchmark-*:1.1.0-alpha06 is released. Version 1.1.0-alpha06 contains these commits.

API Changes

  • Added androidx.benchmark.iterations instrumentation argument to allow manual overriding of iteration count when testing/profiling locally. (6188be, b/194137879)

Bug Fixes

  • Switched to Simpleperf as default sampling profiler on API 29+. (Ic4b34, b/158303822)

Known Issues

  • CompilationMode.BaselineProfile is a work in progress. Avoid using it to determine how good a profile is for now.

Version 1.1.0-alpha05

August 4, 2021

androidx.benchmark:benchmark-*:1.1.0-alpha05 is released. Version 1.1.0-alpha05 contains these commits.

1.1.0-alpha04 was cancelled before release due to a sporatic crash. b/193827052

API Changes

  • Switched startActivityAndWait to invoke launch via am start, which reduces the time of each measurement iteration by approximately 5 seconds, at the cost of no longer supporting intent parcelables. (I5a6f5, b/192009149

Bug Fixes

  • Reduce aggressiveness of thermal throttle detection, and recompute baseline if throttles are detected frequently. (I7327b)
  • Fixes FrameTimingMetric to work on Android S beta (Ib60cc, b/193260119)
  • Use an EmptyActivity to bring the target app out of a force-stopped state to better support CompilationMode.BaselineProfile. (Id7cac, b/192084204)
  • Changed trace file extension to .perfetto-trace to match platform standard. (I4c236, b/174663039)
  • StartupTimingMetric now outputs the "fullyDrawnMs" metric to measure time until your application has completed rendering. To define this metric for your app, call Activity.reportFullyDrawn when your initial content is ready, such as when your initial list items are loaded from DB or network. (reportFullyDrawn method available without build version checks on ComponentActivity). Note that your test must run long enough to capture the metric (startActivityAndWait doesn't wait for reportFullyDrawn). (If1141, b/179176560)
  • Reduce cost of appending Ui metadata to traces by 50+ ms (Ic8390, b/193923003)
  • Drastically increased polling frequency when stopping tracing, which can reduce e.g. startup benchmark runtime by 30+% (Idfbc1, b/193723768)

Version 1.1.0-alpha03

June 16, 2021

androidx.benchmark:benchmark-*:1.1.0-alpha03 is released. Version 1.1.0-alpha03 contains these commits.

New Features

Bug Fixes

  • The sample Gradle code for suppressing benchmark errors has been updated to use a non-deprecated API with a syntax that also supports .gradle.kts users.


    testInstrumentationRunnerArguments["androidx.benchmark.suppressErrors"] = "EMULATOR,LOW-BATTERY"

Version 1.1.0-alpha02

May 18, 2021

Benchmark version 1.1.0-alpha02 brings a big component to benchmarking - Macrobenchmark. In addition to benchmark allowing you to measure CPU loops, macrobenchmark allows you to measure whole-app interactions like startup and scrolling, and capture traces. For more information see the library documentation.

androidx.benchmark:benchmark-*:1.1.0-alpha02 is released. Version 1.1.0-alpha02 contains these commits.

New Features

Macrobenchmark artifacts added (androidx.benchmark:benchmark-macro-junit4 and androidx.benchmark:benchmark-macro)

  • Capture startup, scrolling/animation performance metrics from your app, locally or in CI
  • Capture and inspect traces from within Android Studio

Bug Fixes

  • Workaround shell permissions issue with output directory on Android 12 (Note - may require updating Android Gradle Plugin to 7.0.0 canary and Android Studio to Arctic Fox (2020.3.1), to continue capturing output files on affected devices). (Icb039)
  • Support configuration caching in BenchmarkPlugin (6be1c1, b/159804788)
  • Simplified file output - on by default, in a directory that doesn't require requestLegacyExternalStorage=true (8b5a4d, b/172376362)
  • Fixes library printing logcat warnings about not finding JIT thread on platform versions where it is not present. (I9cc63, b/161847393)
  • Fix for reading device max frequency. (I55c7a)

Version 1.1.0-alpha01

June 10, 2020

androidx.benchmark:benchmark-common:1.1.0-alpha01, androidx.benchmark:benchmark-gradle-plugin:1.1.0-alpha01, and androidx.benchmark:benchmark-junit4:1.1.0-alpha01 are released. Version 1.1.0-alpha01 contains these commits.

New Features of 1.1

  • Allocation Metric - Benchmarks now run an additional phase after warmup and timing, capturing allocation counts. Allocations can cause performance problems on older versions of the platform (140ns in O became 8ns in M - measured on Nexus5X, with locked clocks). This metric is displayed in Android Studio console output, as well as in the
  • Profiling support - You can now capture profiling data for a benchmark run, to inspect why your code may be running slowly. Benchmark supports capturing either method tracing, or method sampling from ART. These files can be inspected with the Profiler inside Android Studio using File > Open.
  • The Benchmark Gradle plugin now provides defaults for simpler setup:
    • testBuildType is set to release by default, to avoid using dependencies with code coverage built-in. The release buildType is also configured as the default buildType, which allows Android Studio to automatically select the correct build variant when opening a project for the first time. (b/138808399)
    • signingConfig.debug is used as the default signing config (b/153583269)

** Bug Fixes **

  • Significantly reduced the warmup transition overhead, where the first measurement for each benchmark was artificially higher than others. This issue was more pronounced in very small benchmarks (1 microsecond or less). (b/142058671)
  • Fixed InstrumentationResultParser error printed for each benchmark when running from command line. (I64988, b/154248456)

Known Issues

  • Command line, gradle invocations of Benchmark do not print out results directly. You can work around this by either running through Studio, or parsing the JSON output file for results.
  • Benchmark reporting fails to pull the report from devices that have an app installed with an applicationId ending with either “android” or “download” (case insensitive). Users hitting this issue should upgrade the Android Gradle Plugin to 4.2-alpha01 or later.

Version 1.0.0

Benchmark Version 1.0.0

November 20, 2019

androidx.benchmark:benchmark-common:1.0.0, androidx.benchmark:benchmark-gradle-plugin:1.0.0, and androidx.benchmark:benchmark-junit4:1.0.0 are released with no changes from 1.0.0-rc01. Version 1.0.0 contains these commits.

Major features of 1.0.0

The Benchmark library allows you to write performance benchmarks of app code and get results quickly.

It prevents build and runtime configuration issues and stabilizes device performance to ensure that measurements are accurate and consistent. Run the benchmarks directly in Android Studio, or in Continuous Integration to observe code performance over time, and to prevent regressions.

Major features include:

  • Clock stabilization
  • Automatic thread prioritization
  • Support for UI performance testing, such as in the RecyclerView Sample
  • JIT-aware warmup and looping
  • JSON benchmark output for post-processing

Version 1.0.0-rc01

October 23, 2019

androidx.benchmark:benchmark-common:1.0.0-rc01, androidx.benchmark:benchmark-gradle-plugin:1.0.0-rc01, and androidx.benchmark:benchmark-junit4:1.0.0-rc01 are released. Version 1.0.0-rc01 contains these commits.

New features

  • Added systrace tracing to benchmarks

Bug fixes

  • Fixed metric instability issue where JIT wouldn't finish before warm up due to deprioritization (b/140773023)
  • Unified JSON output directory across Android Gradle Plugin 3.5 and 3.6

Version 1.0.0-beta01

October 9, 2019

androidx.benchmark:benchmark-common:1.0.0-beta01, androidx.benchmark:benchmark-gradle-plugin:1.0.0-beta01, and androidx.benchmark:benchmark-junit4:1.0.0-beta01 are released. Version 1.0.0-beta01 contains these commits.

New features

  • Run garbage collection before each warmup to reduce memory pressure from one benchmark to leak to the next (b/140895105)

Bug fixes

  • Added androidx.annotation:android-experimental-lint dependency, so that Java code will correctly produce lint errors when experimental API is not used, similar to what is provided by the Kotlin experimental annotation for Kotlin callers.
  • Now correctly detects usage of additionalTestOutputDir instrumentation argument for output in Android Gradle Plugin 3.6, to know when AGP will handle data copy.
  • Fix undetected clock frequency in JSON to correctly print -1 (b/141945670).

Version 1.0.0-alpha06

September 18, 2019

androidx.benchmark:benchmark-common:1.0.0-alpha06, androidx.benchmark:benchmark-gradle-plugin:1.0.0-alpha06, and androidx.benchmark:benchmark-junit4:1.0.0-alpha06 are released. Version 1.0.0-alpha06 contains these commits.

New features

  • Added a check for incorrectly using the old package for the test runner, which now provides a more-helpful error message

API changes

  • The experimental annotation ExperimentalAnnotationReport is now correctly public. Usage of the experimental BenchmarkState#report API now requires this annotation

Version 1.0.0-alpha05

September 5, 2019

androidx.benchmark:benchmark-common:1.0.0-alpha05, androidx.benchmark:benchmark-gradle-plugin:1.0.0-alpha05, and androidx.benchmark:benchmark-junit4:1.0.0-alpha05 are released. The commits included in this version can be found here.

API changes

  • BenchmarkState.reportData API is now marked experimental

Bug fixes

  • Fix for the clock-locking script, which would fail on devices that were either missing the cut or expr shell utilities.
  • Fixed an issue with ./gradlew lockClocks task that would hang on devices that were rooted with an older version of the su utility, which did not support the -c flag.

Version 1.0.0-alpha04

August 7, 2019

androidx.benchmark:benchmark-common:1.0.0-alpha04, androidx.benchmark:benchmark-gradle-plugin:1.0.0-alpha04, and androidx.benchmark:benchmark-junit4:1.0.0-alpha04 are released. The commits included in this version can be found here.

New documentation has also been added for how to use the Benchmark library without Gradle, both for usage with different build systems (such as Bazel or Buck), and when running in CI. For more information, see Build benchmarks without Gradle and Run benchmarks in Continuous Integration.

New features

  • Gradle plugin
    • Now automatically disables test coverage, and sets the AndroidBenchmarkRunner by default (b/138374050)
    • Added support for new AGP-based data copy, when running benchmarks and when using AGP 3.6+
  • JSON format additions
    • Output total benchmark test run time (b/133147694)
    • @Parameterized benchmarks that use a name string (for example @Parameters(name = "size={0},depth={1}")) now output parameter names and values per benchmark in the JSON output (b/132578772)
  • Dry Run mode (b/138785848)
    • Added a "dry run" mode for running each benchmark loop only once, to check for errors/crashes without capturing measurements. This can be useful e.g. for, for example, quickly running benchmarks in presubmit to check that they're not broken.

API changes

  • Module structure has changed, splitting the library (b/138451391)
    • benchmark:benchmark-junit4 contains classes with JUnit dependency: AndroidBenchmarkRunner, and BenchmarkRule, both of which have moved into the androidx.benchmark.junit4 package
    • benchmark:benchmark-common contains the rest of the logic, including the BenchmarkState API
    • This split will allow the library to support benchmarking without JUnit4 APIs in the future
  • Configuration warnings are now treated as errors, and will crash the test (b/137653596)
    • This is done to further encourage accurate measurements, especially in CI
    • These errors can be reduced back to warnings with an instrumentation argument. For example: -e androidx.benchmark.suppressErrors "DEBUGGABLE,LOW_BATTERY"

Bug fixes

  • Errors when writing to external storage on Q devices provide more-descriptive messages, with suggestions of how to resolve the issue
  • Screens are automatically turned on during benchmark runs, instead of failing when the screen is off

External contributions

  • Thanks to Sergey Zakharov for contributing JSON output improvements and the fix for screen off issues!

Version 1.0.0-alpha03

July 2, 2019

androidx.benchmark:benchmark:1.0.0-alpha03 and androidx.benchmark:benchmark-gradle-plugin:1.0.0-alpha03 are released. The commits included in this version can be found here.

New features

  • Expose sleep duration due to thermal throttling per benchmark in the full JSON report

Bug fixes

  • The Gradle plugin should no longer be required to be applied after Android plugins and the Android block
  • Adds support for benchmark reports on Android 10 devices using scoped storage

Version 1.0.0-alpha02

June 6, 2019

androidx.benchmark:1.0.0-alpha02 and androidx.benchmark:benchmark-gradle-plugin:1.0.0-alpha02 are released. The commits included in this version can be found here.

Note that we are treating the JSON schema as an API. We plan to follow the same stability constraints as other APIs: stable (with very rare exceptions) once in beta, and fixed in final release, with only additions in minor releases and changes/removals in major releases.

API changes

  • Overhauled JSON schema. Further changes to the JSON schema are likely to be limited to additions:

    • Reorganized the result object structure to support additional metric groups in the future (b/132713021)
    • Added test run context information, such as device and build info and whether clocks are locked, to the top-level object (b/132711920)
    • Time metric names now have ‘ns’ in their name (b/132714527)
    • Additional stats added per reported metric (maximum, median, minimum), and removed simplified 'nanos' summary stat (b/132713851)
  • Removed XML output (b/132714414)

  • Thermal throttle detection removed from BenchmarkState.reportData API (b/132887006)

Bug fixes

  • Fixed ./gradlew lockClocks not sticking on some recent OS devices (b/133424037)
  • Throttling detection disabled for emulator (b/132880807)

Version 1.0.0-alpha01

May 7, 2019

androidx.benchmark:benchmark:1.0.0-alpha01 is released. The commits included in this version are available here.