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Compose Runtime

Fundamental building blocks of Compose's programming model and state management, and core runtime for the Compose Compiler Plugin to target.
Latest Update Current Stable Release Next Release Candidate Beta Release Alpha Release
October 14, 2020 - - - 1.0.0-alpha05

Structure

Compose is combination of 7 Maven Group Ids within androidx. Each Group contains a targeted subset of functionality, each with it's own set of release notes.

This table explains the groups and links to each set of release notes.

GroupDescription
compose.animationBuild animations in their Jetpack Compose applications to enrich the user experience.
compose.compilerTransform @Composable functions and enable optimizations with a Kotlin compiler plugin.
compose.foundationWrite Jetpack Compose applications with ready to use building blocks and extend foundation to build your own design system pieces.
compose.materialBuild Jetpack Compose UIs with ready to use Material Design Components. This is the higher level entry point of Compose, designed to provide components that match those described at www.material.io.
compose.runtimeFundamental building blocks of Compose's programming model and state management, and core runtime for the Compose Compiler Plugin to target.
compose.uiFundamental components of compose UI needed to interact with the device, including layout, drawing, and input.
uiWorks with the Jetpack Compose library.

Declaring dependencies

To add a dependency on Compose, you must add the Google Maven repository to your project. Read Google's Maven repository for more information.

Add the dependencies for the artifacts you need in the build.gradle file for your app or module:

dependencies {
    implementation "androidx.compose.runtime:runtime:1.0.0-alpha05"
    implementation "androidx.compose.runtime:runtime-livedata:1.0.0-alpha05"
    implementation "androidx.compose.runtime:runtime-rxjava2:1.0.0-alpha05"
}

android {
    buildFeatures {
        compose true
    }

    composeOptions {
        kotlinCompilerVersion "1.4.0"
        kotlinCompilerExtensionVersion "1.0.0-alpha05"
    }
}

tasks.withType(org.jetbrains.kotlin.gradle.tasks.KotlinCompile).configureEach {
    kotlinOptions {
        jvmTarget = "1.8"
        freeCompilerArgs += ["-Xallow-jvm-ir-dependencies", "-Xskip-prerelease-check"]
    }
}

For more information about dependencies, see Add build dependencies.

Feedback

Your feedback helps make Jetpack better. Let us know if you discover new issues or have ideas for improving this library. Please take a look at the existing issues in this library before you create a new one. You can add your vote to an existing issue by clicking the star button.

Create a new issue

See the Issue Tracker documentation for more information.

Version 1.0.0

Version 1.0.0-alpha05

October 14, 2020

androidx.compose.runtime:runtime-*:1.0.0-alpha05 is released. Version 1.0.0-alpha05 contains these commits.

API Changes

  • Experimental Modifier.pointerInput suspending input modifier (Ia77d2)
  • The scrolling performance of LazyColumn/Row is improved by doing less work in subcomposition on every scroll. The new hasInvalidations() method was added for Composition class. hasPendingChanges() method from Recomposer was renamed to hasInvalidations() (Ib2f32, b/168293643, b/167972292, b/165028371)
  • Add produceState API for launching coroutines from composition that update a single State<T> value over time (Id4a57)
  • launchInComposition renamed to LaunchedTask to match Compose API guidelines (I99a8e)
  • The order of place() calls in custom Layouts now defines the drawing order for the children (Ibc9f6)

Version 1.0.0-alpha04

October 1, 2020

androidx.compose.runtime:runtime-*:1.0.0-alpha04 is released. Version 1.0.0-alpha04 contains these commits.

API Changes

  • Added OwnerScope to allow collection of layout and drawing observation scopes once they are no longer valid. (Ic4cf8)
  • Added derivedStateOf API to create State objects based on a calculation which may read (and derive from) other State objects (If758b)
  • Added TestOnly API for SnapshotStateObserver (I6e2a9)

Bug Fixes

  • foundation.Box was deprecated. Please use foundation.layout.Box instead. (Ie5950, b/167680279)

Version 1.0.0-alpha03

September 16, 2020

androidx.compose.runtime:runtime-*:1.0.0-alpha03 is released. Version 1.0.0-alpha03 contains these commits.

API Changes

  • CompositionCoroutineScope no longer implements MonotonicFrameClock. Callers of withFrameNanos should import the top-level function explicitly. (Icb642, b/166778123)

Bug Fixes

  • Global testing functions such as onNode or waitForIdle are now deprecated, please migrate to their new counterparts that are defined on ComposeTestRule (I7f45a)
  • launchInComposition no longer launches coroutines undispatched (Ief6af, b/166486000)

Version 1.0.0-alpha02

September 2, 2020

androidx.compose.runtime:runtime-*:1.0.0-alpha02 is released. Version 1.0.0-alpha02 contains these commits.

API Changes

  • Add snapshotFlow and withMutableSnapshot APIs for consuming and producing Snapshot data changes. (I3e722)
  • The calling convention for composable functions has changed. This is a binary breaking change. All libraries must be recompiled to work with this version of the compose compiler plugin.

    This change does not create a source level breaking change as the only APIs that have changed are compiler APIs that have an explicit opt in. (I7afd2, b/158123185)

  • Removed scheduling methods from EmbeddingContext (I7b9be)

  • onPreCommit is deprecated; onCommit now has onPreCommit's behavior.

    onCommit and onActive now run in the same choreographer frame that the composition changes committed in rather than at the beginning of the next choreographer frame. (I70403)

Version 1.0.0-alpha01

August 26, 2020

androidx.compose.runtime:runtime-*:1.0.0-alpha01 is released. Version 1.0.0-alpha01 contains these commits.

Version 0.1.0-dev

Version 0.1.0-dev17

August 19, 2020

androidx.compose.runtime:runtime-*:0.1.0-dev17 is released. Version 0.1.0-dev17 contains these commits.

API Changes

  • Custom emits can now declare that one or more of its setters can be skipped and recomposed independently of the emit. (Ibbd13)
  • Removed deprecated FrameManager calls.

    Internal compose APIs have been changed to reduce the amount of overhead to track state objects such as mutableStateof() (I80ba6)

  • The state { ... } composable is now deprecated in favor of explicit calls to remember { mutableStateOf(...) } for clarity. This reduces the overall API surface and number of concepts for state management, and matches the by mutableStateOf() pattern for class property delegation. (Ia5727)

  • Flow.collectAsState now determines the default dispatcher from the composition itself rather than defaulting to Dispatchers.Main. (I9c1d9)

  • Crash when something which saves the state was used inside the for loop is fixed. Now having the same key in savedInstanceState() is allowed, api of UiSavedStateRegistry is now adjusted to this new requirement (I4ab76, b/160042650, b/156853976, b/159026663, b/154920561)

Bug Fixes

  • emitView was deprecated. Use AndroidView instead if possible for emitting Views inside Compose. Note that composing Views and ViewGroups directly will not be supported in the future unless these are leaves in the composition tree, case when this can be achieved using AndroidView. (I29b1e, b/163871221)

Version 0.1.0-dev16

August 5, 2020

androidx.compose.runtime:runtime-*:0.1.0-dev16 is released. Version 0.1.0-dev16 contains these commits.

API Changes

  • The default mutation policy of mutableStateOf(), ambientOf() and savedInstanceStateOf() has changed to be structuralEqualityPolicy() instead of referentialEqualityPolicy().

    The default for deciding if a new value assigned to a mutableStateOf() instance is considered a change now defaults to using == instead of using ===.

    See https://kotlinlang.org/docs/reference/equality.html

    ambientOf() and savedInstanceStateOf() use mutableStateOf() in their implementations so they were changed to be consistent with mutableStateOf().

    Using structural equality more closely matches developer expectations.

    For example,

    val state = mutableStateOf(1f)
    

    followed by,

    state.value = 1f
    

    will no longer be consider a change to state and uses of state during composition will no longer need to be recomposed.

    This is a breaking change but, in most cases (such when using classes that do not override equals()), this will not have a noticeable effect on an application.

    Classes that do override equals(), such as data classes, might see a performance degradation as their equals() methods are now, by default, called when assigned to a mutableStateOf().

    The previous behavior can be restored by adding the policy parameter policy = referentialEqualityPolicy() to calls to mutableStateOf(), ambientOf() and savedInstanceStateOf(). (Ic21a7)

  • Row and Column are now inline function significantly reducing the overhead of using them. (I75c10)

Bug Fixes

  • setViewContent was deprecated. setContent should be used instead. (I7e497, b/160335130)
  • Added MonotonicFrameAnimationClock that enables you to use a MonotonicFrameClock as an AnimationClockObservable to bridge the gap between the new coroutines based clocks and APIs that still use the old callback based clocks.

    The MonotonicFrameClock equivalent of ManualAnimationClock is now ManualFrameClock. (I111c7, b/161247083)

  • Modifier.stateDraggable was completely reworked and renamed to Modifier.swipeable. A new SwipeableState class was introduced, and DrawerState and BottomDrawerState were refactored to inherit from it. [Modal/Bottom]DrawerLayout no longer take an onStateChange parameter. (I72332, b/148023068)

  • Modifier.plus has been deprecated, use Modifier.then instead. 'Then' has a stronger signal of ordering, while also prohibits to type Modifier.padding().background() + anotherModifier, which breaks the chain and harder to read (Iedd58, b/161529964)

  • SubcomposeLayout is added. It is a low level primitive which allows to compose the children during the measuring if we want to use some values available only later during the measure for the subtree composition. For example WithConstraints is not implemented using SubcomposeLayout. (I25cc8)

  • Material FilledTextField was renamed to TextField and foundational TextField was renamed to BaseTextField to make simplest desired API easy to discover and use (Ia6242, b/155482676)

  • Modifier.drawBackground has been renamed to Modifier.background (I13677)

Version 0.1.0-dev15

July 22, 2020

androidx.compose.runtime:runtime-*:0.1.0-dev15 is released. Version 0.1.0-dev15 contains these commits.

Dependencies Update

  • To use the 0.1.0-dev15 version of Compose, you will need to update your dependencies according to the new code snippets shown above in Declaring dependencies.

API Changes

  • @Model annotation is now deprecated. Use state and mutableStateOf as alternatives. This deprecation decision was reached after much careful discussion.

    Justification

    Rationale includes but is not limited to:

    • Reduces API surface area and concepts we need to teach
    • More closely aligns with other comparable toolkits (Swift UI, React, Flutter)
    • Reversible decision. We can always bring @Model back later.
    • Removes corner-case usage and difficult to answer questions about configuring @Model as things we need to handle
    • @Model data classes, equals, hashcode, etc.
    • How do I have some properties “observed” and others not?
    • How do I specify structural vs. referential equality to be used in observation?
    • Reduces “magic” in the system. Would reduce the likelihood of someone assuming system was smarter than it is (ie, it knowing how to diff a list)
    • Makes the granularity of observation more intuitive.
    • Improves refactorability from variable -> property on class
    • Potentially opens up possibilities to do hand-crafted State-specific optimizations
    • More closely aligns with the rest of the ecosystem and reduces ambiguity towards immutable or us “embracing mutable state”

    Migration Notes

    Almost all existing usages of @Model are fairly trivially transformed in one of two ways. The example below has a @Model class with two properties just for the sake of example, and has it being used in a composable.

    @Model class Position(
     var x: Int,
     var y: Int
    )
    
    @Composable fun Example() {
     var p = remember { Position(0, 0) }
     PositionChanger(
       position=p,
       onXChange={ p.x = it }
       onYChange={ p.y = it }
     )
    }
    

    Alternative 1: Use State<OriginalClass> and create copies.

    This approach is made easier with Kotlin’s data classes. Essentially, make all previously var properties into val properties of a data class, and then use state instead of remember, and assign the state value to cloned copies of the original using the data class copy(...) convenience method.

    It’s important to note that this approach only works when the only mutations to that class were done in the same scope that the State instance is created. If the class is internally mutating itself outside of the scope of usage, and you are relying on the observation of that, then the next approach is the one you will want to use.

    data class Position(
     val x: Int,
     val y: Int
    )
    
    @Composable fun Example() {
     var p by state { Position(0, 0) }
     PositionChanger(
       position=p,
       onXChange={ p = p.copy(x=it) }
       onYChange={ p = p.copy(y=it) }
     )
    }
    

    Alternative 2: Use mutableStateOf and property delegates

    This approach is made easier with Kotlin’s property delegates and the mutableStateOf API which allows you to create MutableState instances outside of composition. Essentially, replace all var properties of the original class with var properties with mutableStateOf as their property delegate. This has the advantage that the usage of the class will not change at all, only the internal implementation of it. The behavior is not completely identical to the original example though, as each property is now observed/subscribed to individually, so the recompositions you see after this refactor could be more narrow (a good thing).

    class Position(x: Int, y: Int) {
     var x by mutableStateOf(x)
     var y by mutableStateOf(y)
    }
    
    // source of Example is identical to original
    @Composable fun Example() {
     var p = remember { Position(0, 0) }
     PositionChanger(
       position=p,
       onXChange={ p.x = it }
       onYChange={ p.y = it }
     )
    }
    

    (I409e8, b/152050010, b/146362815, b/146342522, b/143413369, b/135715219, b/143263925, b/139653744)

  • Changes the code generation strategy of Compose’s compiler. Prior to the change, the compose compiler would transform calls to composable functions. With this change, we now transform the body of a composable function and leave the callsite unaltered (mostly).

    This means that most of the logic communicating with the compose runtime happens at the start of the function body, instead of at the callsite.

    This should be a source-compatible change for all usage of compose. Most users of compose should not have to update any code as a result of this change.

    In order to support this work, the JVM signature of all composable functions has changed. A Composable function accepting a single parameter is transformed into a function accepting 3 parameters, the additional parameters are the Composer, a ‘key’ integer. a bitmask integer used to propagate metadata through calls.

    Compose now also transforms default arguments to a composable function. It does this without introducing an additional synthetic default overload of the function itself, so this change will result in fewer functions being defined.

    Known intentional behavioral changes resulting from this:

    1. Some calls will skip where they wouldn’t have previously
    2. Composable expressions in default argument expressions are now correctly subscribed to and handled

    This work included some optimizations: 1. The result of comparisons of parameters are propagated through the call graph to other composable functions. This will result in fewer comparisons at runtime, reduces the slot table size, as well as more skipping of composable functions that were previously not skipped 2. Paremeters which are determined to be “static” at compile time are no longer compared or stored in the runtime. This reduces the number of comparisons and reduces slot table size. 3. Control flow structure of the body of functions is used to minimize the number of groups that are generated. This reduces slot table size and results in less work for the runtime 4. Unused dispatch and receiver parameters to functions are not included in determining skippability of the function if they are not used inside of the body of the function.

    Most breaking changes were for APIs that the compiler targets directly, and typical use of compose will not be affected: 1. Composer::startExpr was removed 2. Composer::endExpr was removed 3. Composer::call was deprecated 4. The non-varargs overloads of key have been removed. Use the vararg version going forward. 5. The Pivotal annotation was deprecated. Use key as a replacement. 6. ScopeUpdateScope::updateScope was changed to expect a Function3 instead of Function1 7. restartableFunction and restartableFunctionN were updated to include additional compile time parameters (I60756, b/143464846)

  • Added sortWith and removeRange to MutableVector (Icccf7)

  • Added default method implementations for CompositionLifecycleObserver (I24289)

  • Applier now requires a clear() method for disposing compositions (Ibe697)

  • Added asMutableList() to MutableVector to allow it to be passed to public API without having to copy the entire list. (I298df)

  • Added rememberCoroutineScope() to obtain a managed CoroutineScope in composition for launching jobs in response to events. (I0e264)

  • MutableVector is a new collection that does not implement any of the standard Collection interface. This collection offers speed above other requirements and is intended to only be used in internal implementations. (I8ebd6)

  • Temporarily removed StableMutableList and StableMutableMap to avoid an issue in the version of Kotlin compose requires. These interfaces will be reintroduced once compose is updated to a version of Kotlin that doesn't have the issue.

    SnapshotStateList and SnapshotStateMap are now public but they will be deprecated once StableMutableList and StableMutableMap are restored. (Ia7769)

  • add top-level withFrameNanos function for animation timing (Ie34c5)

  • @Untracked annotation has been deprecated. Replace with @ComposableContract(tracked=false) (Id211e)

  • RestartableFunction and associated APIs have been renamed to ComposableLambda, etc. These APIs were targeted only by the compiler so this should not affect source level compatibility normally. The rename was done primarily to communicate what this class is better when it shows up in stack traces (I7eb25)

  • @Composable annotation is no longer valid on classes (Ia5f02)

  • Ambient<T> is now @Stable instead of @Immutable (I0b4bb)

  • Prior to this change, the compose compiler plugin would non-trivially intercept calls to constructors inside of a @Composable function if there was an (I5205a, b/158123804)

  • The Recompose composable is no longer a useful abstraction. Most recomposition should happen as a result of MutableState assignments. For anything beyond that, it is recommended that you use the invalidate function to trigger a recomposition of the current scope. (Ifc992)

  • Observe is no longer a useful abstraction. If you need to replicate it, its implementation can be replicated by just creating a composable function which executes a composable lambda parameter. For example, @Composable fun Observe(body: @Composable () -> Unit) = body() (I40d37)

  • @Direct was deprecated in favor of @ComposableContract(restartable=false) (If4708)

  • Added an adapter for the recently introduced StateFlow which allows as to pre-populate the initial value so the returned State is non-nullable (I61dd8, b/156233789)

  • Added an adapter for Flow. Example of the usage: val value by flow.collectAsState() (If2198, b/153375923)

  • [Mutable]State property delegate operators moved to extensions to support Kotlin 1.4 property delegate optimizations. Callers must add imports to continue using by state { ... } or by mutableStateOf(...). (I5312c)

  • androidx.compose.ViewComposer has been moved to androidx.ui.node.UiComposer androidx.compose.Emittable has been removed. It was redundant with ComponentNode. androidx.compose.ViewAdapters has been removed. They are no longer a supported use case. Compose.composeInto has been deprecated. Use setContent or setViewContent instead. Compose.disposeComposition has been deprecated. Use the dispose method on the Composition returned by setContent instead. androidx.compose.Compose.subcomposeInto has moved to androidx.ui.core.subcomposeInto ComponentNode#emitInsertAt has been renamed to ComponentNode#insertAt ComponentNode#emitRemoveAt has been renamed to ComponentNode#removeAt ComponentNode#emitMode has been renamed to ComponentNode#move (Idef00)

  • Updated the ComposeFlags.COMPOSER_PARAM flag to be true, which will change the code generation strategy for the compose plugin. At a high level, this causes @Composable functions to be generated with an additional synthetic parameter, which is passed through to subsequent @Composable calls in order for the runtime to properly manage execution. This is a significant binary breaking change, however, should preserve source-level compatibility in all sanctioned usage of compose. (I7971c)

  • Breaking changes to the ambients API. See log and Ambient<T> documentation for details (I4c7ee, b/143769776)

  • Added ui-livedata - new artifact with an adapter for LiveData. Example of the usage: val value by liveData.observeAsState() (Ie9e8c, b/150465596)

  • Rx adapters without explicit initial value are deprecated. Using null is not always the best default, for example when you have a List it is better to start with emptyList() or any other reasonable default (I00025, b/161348384)

  • Added ui-rxjava2 - new artifact with adapters for RxJava2. Example of the usage: val value by observable.subscribeAsState() (Ifab4b, b/153369097)

  • savedInstanceState() can now be used with nullable types (I6847f, b/153532190)

  • New listSaver() and mapSaver() to make it easier to write custom Saver objects (I8cf68, b/152331508)

  • New functions: savedInstanceState() and rememberSavedInstanceState(). They are similar to state() and remember() but have a saved instance state support build in (If1987, b/152025209)

Bug Fixes

  • runOnIdleCompose renamed to runOnIdle (I83607)
  • Made LayoutNode experimental API (I4f2e9)
  • androidx.ui.foundation.TextFieldValue and androidx.ui.input.EditorValue is deprecated. TextField, FilledTextField and CoreTextField composables that uses that type is also deprecated. Please use androidx.ui.input.TextFieldValue instead (I4066d, b/155211005)
  • Removed deprecated DrawBackground API in favor of drawBackground extension APIs on Modifier. Refactored color, brush and paint drawBackground implementations to reduce code paths as well as remove requirement for Modifier to be created as part of composition. (I0343a)
  • Updated higher level compose APIs that expose a Canvas to expose CanvasScope instead. This removes the need for consumers to maintain their own Paint objects. For consumers that still require access to a Canvas they can use the drawCanvas extension method which provides a callback to issue drawing commands with the underlying Canvas. (I80afd)
  • WithConstraints trailing lambda API has been changed. Now instead of two params it has a receiver scope which in addition to constraints and layoutDirection provides minWidth, maxWidth, minHeight and maxHeight properties in Dp (I91b9a, b/149979702)
  • Added symmetric padding modifier. (I39840)
  • Updated wrapContentWidth and wrapContentHeight to expect vertical or horizontal Alignment rather than any Alignment. The gravity modifier was updated to accept vertical or horizontal Alignment. Row, Column and Stack were updated to support custom continuous Alignments. (Ib0728)
  • ui-text module is renamed as ui-text-core (I57dec)
  • Improve DrawModifier API:
    • Made the receiver scope for draw() ContentDrawScope
    • Removed all parameters on draw()
    • DrawScope has same interface as former CanvasScope
    • ContentDrawScope has drawContent() method (Ibaced, b/152919067)
  • ColoredRect has been deprecated. Use Box(Modifier.preferredSize(width, height).drawBackground(color)) instead. (I499fa, b/152753731)
  • Replaced Modifier plus operator with factory extension functions (I225e4)
  • RowScope and ColumnScope members are now accessible outside Row and Column. (I3a641)
  • Renamed LayoutFlexible to LayoutWeight. Renamed tight parameter to fill. (If4738)
  • WithConstraints got LayoutDirection parameter (I6d6f7)
  • Renamed background to DrawBackground and make it to be memorized by default (Ia0bd3)
  • Replaced ButtonStyle with distinct functions and removed text (string) overload. See updated samples for usage information. (If63ab, b/146478620, b/146482131)
  • runOnIdleCompose and runOnUiThread are now global functions instead of methods on ComposeTestRule. (Icbe8f)

External Contribution

  • Remove unneeded API such as Looper and Handler from Compose Runtime porting layer (I6847d)
  • Deprecate Flow<T>.collectAsState() with no initial value. Use StateFlow<T> or pass an explicit initial value instead. (I63f98, b/157674865)