管理位图内存

注意:在大多数情况下,我们建议您使用 Glide 库提取、解码和显示应用中的位图。在处理这些任务以及与位图和 Android 上的其他图片相关的其他任务时,Glide 会将大部分的复杂工作抽象出来。如需了解如何使用和下载 Glide,请访问 GitHub 上的 Glilt 代码库

除了缓存位图中介绍的步骤外,您可以采取一些具体措施来促进垃圾回收和位图重复使用。建议的策略取决于您的目标 Android 版本。本节课中附带的 BitmapFun 示例应用向您展示了如何通过设计让您的应用可在不同的 Android 版本上高效运行。

为给本节课奠定基础,下面介绍了 Android 位图内存管理的演变过程:

  • 在 Android 2.2(API 级别 8)及更低版本上,当发生垃圾回收时,应用的线程会停止。这会导致延迟,从而降低性能。Android 2.3 添加了并发垃圾回收功能,这意味着系统不再引用位图后,很快就会回收内存。
  • 在 Android 2.3.3(API 级别 10)及更低版本上,位图的后备像素数据存储在本地内存中。它与存储在 Dalvik 堆中的位图本身是分开的。本地内存中的像素数据并不以可预测的方式释放,可能会导致应用短暂超出其内存限制并崩溃。从 Android 3.0(API 级别 11)到 Android 7.1(API 级别 25),像素数据会与关联的位图一起存储在 Dalvik 堆上。在 Android 8.0(API 级别 26)及更高版本中,位图像素数据存储在原生堆中。

以下各部分介绍了如何针对不同 Android 版本优化位图内存管理。

在 Android 2.3.3 及更低版本上管理内存

在 Android 2.3.3(API 级别 10)及更低版本上,建议使用 recycle()。如果您在应用中显示大量位图数据,则可能会遇到 OutOfMemoryError 错误。利用 recycle() 方法,应用可以尽快回收内存。

注意:只有当您确定位图已不再使用时才应该使用 recycle()。如果您调用 recycle() 并在稍后尝试绘制位图,则会收到错误:"Canvas: trying to use a recycled bitmap"

以下代码段给出了调用 recycle() 的示例。它使用引用计数(在变量 mDisplayRefCountmCacheRefCount 中)来跟踪位图当前是在显示还是在缓存中。当满足以下条件时,代码便会回收位图:

  • mDisplayRefCountmCacheRefCount 的引用计数均为 0。
  • 位图不是 null,并且尚未被回收。

Kotlin

private var cacheRefCount: Int = 0
private var displayRefCount: Int = 0
...
// Notify the drawable that the displayed state has changed.
// Keep a count to determine when the drawable is no longer displayed.
fun setIsDisplayed(isDisplayed: Boolean) {
    synchronized(this) {
        if (isDisplayed) {
            displayRefCount++
            hasBeenDisplayed = true
        } else {
            displayRefCount--
        }
    }
    // Check to see if recycle() can be called.
    checkState()
}

// Notify the drawable that the cache state has changed.
// Keep a count to determine when the drawable is no longer being cached.
fun setIsCached(isCached: Boolean) {
    synchronized(this) {
        if (isCached) {
            cacheRefCount++
        } else {
            cacheRefCount--
        }
    }
    // Check to see if recycle() can be called.
    checkState()
}

@Synchronized
private fun checkState() {
    // If the drawable cache and display ref counts = 0, and this drawable
    // has been displayed, then recycle.
    if (cacheRefCount <= 0
            && displayRefCount <= 0
            && hasBeenDisplayed
            && hasValidBitmap()
    ) {
        getBitmap()?.recycle()
    }
}

@Synchronized
private fun hasValidBitmap(): Boolean =
        getBitmap()?.run {
            !isRecycled
        } ?: false

Java

private int cacheRefCount = 0;
private int displayRefCount = 0;
...
// Notify the drawable that the displayed state has changed.
// Keep a count to determine when the drawable is no longer displayed.
public void setIsDisplayed(boolean isDisplayed) {
    synchronized (this) {
        if (isDisplayed) {
            displayRefCount++;
            hasBeenDisplayed = true;
        } else {
            displayRefCount--;
        }
    }
    // Check to see if recycle() can be called.
    checkState();
}

// Notify the drawable that the cache state has changed.
// Keep a count to determine when the drawable is no longer being cached.
public void setIsCached(boolean isCached) {
    synchronized (this) {
        if (isCached) {
            cacheRefCount++;
        } else {
            cacheRefCount--;
        }
    }
    // Check to see if recycle() can be called.
    checkState();
}

private synchronized void checkState() {
    // If the drawable cache and display ref counts = 0, and this drawable
    // has been displayed, then recycle.
    if (cacheRefCount <= 0 && displayRefCount <= 0 && hasBeenDisplayed
            && hasValidBitmap()) {
        getBitmap().recycle();
    }
}

private synchronized boolean hasValidBitmap() {
    Bitmap bitmap = getBitmap();
    return bitmap != null && !bitmap.isRecycled();
}

在 Android 3.0 及更高版本上管理内存

Android 3.0(API 级别 11)引入了 BitmapFactory.Options.inBitmap 字段。如果设置了此选项,那么采用 Options 对象的解码方法会在加载内容时尝试重复使用现有位图。这意味着位图的内存得到了重复使用,从而提高了性能,同时移除了内存分配和取消分配。不过,inBitmap 的使用方式存在某些限制。特别是在 Android 4.4(API 级别 19)之前,系统仅支持大小相同的位图。如需了解详情,请参阅 inBitmap 文档。

保存位图供稍后使用

以下代码段演示了如何存储现有位图,以供稍后在示例应用中使用。当应用在 Android 3.0 或更高版本上运行并且位图从 LruCache 删除时,对位图的软引用会放置在 HashSet 中,以供稍后通过 inBitmap 重复使用:

Kotlin

var reusableBitmaps: MutableSet<SoftReference<Bitmap>>? = null
private lateinit var memoryCache: LruCache<String, BitmapDrawable>
// If you're running on Honeycomb or newer, create a
// synchronized HashSet of references to reusable bitmaps.
if (Utils.hasHoneycomb()) {
    reusableBitmaps = Collections.synchronizedSet(HashSet<SoftReference<Bitmap>>())
}

memoryCache = object : LruCache<String, BitmapDrawable>(cacheParams.memCacheSize) {

    // Notify the removed entry that is no longer being cached.
    override fun entryRemoved(
            evicted: Boolean,
            key: String,
            oldValue: BitmapDrawable,
            newValue: BitmapDrawable
    ) {
        if (oldValue is RecyclingBitmapDrawable) {
            // The removed entry is a recycling drawable, so notify it
            // that it has been removed from the memory cache.
            oldValue.setIsCached(false)
        } else {
            // The removed entry is a standard BitmapDrawable.
            if (Utils.hasHoneycomb()) {
                // We're running on Honeycomb or later, so add the bitmap
                // to a SoftReference set for possible use with inBitmap later.
                reusableBitmaps?.add(SoftReference(oldValue.bitmap))
            }
        }
    }
}

Java

Set<SoftReference<Bitmap>> reusableBitmaps;
private LruCache<String, BitmapDrawable> memoryCache;

// If you're running on Honeycomb or newer, create a
// synchronized HashSet of references to reusable bitmaps.
if (Utils.hasHoneycomb()) {
    reusableBitmaps =
            Collections.synchronizedSet(new HashSet<SoftReference<Bitmap>>());
}

memoryCache = new LruCache<String, BitmapDrawable>(cacheParams.memCacheSize) {

    // Notify the removed entry that is no longer being cached.
    @Override
    protected void entryRemoved(boolean evicted, String key,
            BitmapDrawable oldValue, BitmapDrawable newValue) {
        if (RecyclingBitmapDrawable.class.isInstance(oldValue)) {
            // The removed entry is a recycling drawable, so notify it
            // that it has been removed from the memory cache.
            ((RecyclingBitmapDrawable) oldValue).setIsCached(false);
        } else {
            // The removed entry is a standard BitmapDrawable.
            if (Utils.hasHoneycomb()) {
                // We're running on Honeycomb or later, so add the bitmap
                // to a SoftReference set for possible use with inBitmap later.
                reusableBitmaps.add
                        (new SoftReference<Bitmap>(oldValue.getBitmap()));
            }
        }
    }
....
}

使用现有位图

在正在运行的应用中,解码器方法会检查是否存在可以使用的现有位图。例如:

Kotlin

fun decodeSampledBitmapFromFile(
        filename: String,
        reqWidth: Int,
        reqHeight: Int,
        cache: ImageCache
): Bitmap {

    val options: BitmapFactory.Options = BitmapFactory.Options()
    ...
    BitmapFactory.decodeFile(filename, options)
    ...

    // If we're running on Honeycomb or newer, try to use inBitmap.
    if (Utils.hasHoneycomb()) {
        addInBitmapOptions(options, cache)
    }
    ...
    return BitmapFactory.decodeFile(filename, options)
}

Java

public static Bitmap decodeSampledBitmapFromFile(String filename,
        int reqWidth, int reqHeight, ImageCache cache) {

    final BitmapFactory.Options options = new BitmapFactory.Options();
    ...
    BitmapFactory.decodeFile(filename, options);
    ...

    // If we're running on Honeycomb or newer, try to use inBitmap.
    if (Utils.hasHoneycomb()) {
        addInBitmapOptions(options, cache);
    }
    ...
    return BitmapFactory.decodeFile(filename, options);
}

下一个代码段展示了在上述代码段中调用的 addInBitmapOptions() 方法。它会查找现有的位图以设为 inBitmap 的值。请注意,只有找到合适的匹配项,此方法才会为 inBitmap 设置一个值(您的代码绝不应假定会找到匹配项):

Kotlin

private fun addInBitmapOptions(options: BitmapFactory.Options, cache: ImageCache?) {
    // inBitmap only works with mutable bitmaps, so force the decoder to
    // return mutable bitmaps.
    options.inMutable = true

    // Try to find a bitmap to use for inBitmap.
    cache?.getBitmapFromReusableSet(options)?.also { inBitmap ->
        // If a suitable bitmap has been found, set it as the value of
        // inBitmap.
        options.inBitmap = inBitmap
    }
}

// This method iterates through the reusable bitmaps, looking for one
// to use for inBitmap:
fun getBitmapFromReusableSet(options: BitmapFactory.Options): Bitmap? {
    mReusableBitmaps?.takeIf { it.isNotEmpty() }?.let { reusableBitmaps ->
        synchronized(reusableBitmaps) {
            val iterator: MutableIterator<SoftReference<Bitmap>> = reusableBitmaps.iterator()
            while (iterator.hasNext()) {
                iterator.next().get()?.let { item ->
                    if (item.isMutable) {
                        // Check to see it the item can be used for inBitmap.
                        if (canUseForInBitmap(item, options)) {
                            // Remove from reusable set so it can't be used again.
                            iterator.remove()
                            return item
                        }
                    } else {
                        // Remove from the set if the reference has been cleared.
                        iterator.remove()
                    }
                }
            }
        }
    }
    return null
}

Java

private static void addInBitmapOptions(BitmapFactory.Options options,
        ImageCache cache) {
    // inBitmap only works with mutable bitmaps, so force the decoder to
    // return mutable bitmaps.
    options.inMutable = true;

    if (cache != null) {
        // Try to find a bitmap to use for inBitmap.
        Bitmap inBitmap = cache.getBitmapFromReusableSet(options);

        if (inBitmap != null) {
            // If a suitable bitmap has been found, set it as the value of
            // inBitmap.
            options.inBitmap = inBitmap;
        }
    }
}

// This method iterates through the reusable bitmaps, looking for one
// to use for inBitmap:
protected Bitmap getBitmapFromReusableSet(BitmapFactory.Options options) {
        Bitmap bitmap = null;

    if (reusableBitmaps != null && !reusableBitmaps.isEmpty()) {
        synchronized (reusableBitmaps) {
            final Iterator<SoftReference<Bitmap>> iterator
                    = reusableBitmaps.iterator();
            Bitmap item;

            while (iterator.hasNext()) {
                item = iterator.next().get();

                if (null != item && item.isMutable()) {
                    // Check to see it the item can be used for inBitmap.
                    if (canUseForInBitmap(item, options)) {
                        bitmap = item;

                        // Remove from reusable set so it can't be used again.
                        iterator.remove();
                        break;
                    }
                } else {
                    // Remove from the set if the reference has been cleared.
                    iterator.remove();
                }
            }
        }
    }
    return bitmap;
}

最后,此方法会确定要用于 inBitmap 的候选位图是否满足相应的大小条件:

Kotlin

private fun canUseForInBitmap(candidate: Bitmap, targetOptions: BitmapFactory.Options): Boolean {
    return if (Build.VERSION.SDK_INT >= Build.VERSION_CODES.KITKAT) {
        // From Android 4.4 (KitKat) onward we can re-use if the byte size of
        // the new bitmap is smaller than the reusable bitmap candidate
        // allocation byte count.
        val width: Int = targetOptions.outWidth / targetOptions.inSampleSize
        val height: Int = targetOptions.outHeight / targetOptions.inSampleSize
        val byteCount: Int = width * height * getBytesPerPixel(candidate.config)
        byteCount <= candidate.allocationByteCount
    } else {
        // On earlier versions, the dimensions must match exactly and the inSampleSize must be 1
        candidate.width == targetOptions.outWidth
                && candidate.height == targetOptions.outHeight
                && targetOptions.inSampleSize == 1
    }
}

/**
 * A helper function to return the byte usage per pixel of a bitmap based on its configuration.
 */
private fun getBytesPerPixel(config: Bitmap.Config): Int {
    return when (config) {
        Bitmap.Config.ARGB_8888 -> 4
        Bitmap.Config.RGB_565, Bitmap.Config.ARGB_4444 -> 2
        Bitmap.Config.ALPHA_8 -> 1
        else -> 1
    }
}

Java

static boolean canUseForInBitmap(
        Bitmap candidate, BitmapFactory.Options targetOptions) {

    if (Build.VERSION.SDK_INT >= Build.VERSION_CODES.KITKAT) {
        // From Android 4.4 (KitKat) onward we can re-use if the byte size of
        // the new bitmap is smaller than the reusable bitmap candidate
        // allocation byte count.
        int width = targetOptions.outWidth / targetOptions.inSampleSize;
        int height = targetOptions.outHeight / targetOptions.inSampleSize;
        int byteCount = width * height * getBytesPerPixel(candidate.getConfig());
        return byteCount <= candidate.getAllocationByteCount();
    }

    // On earlier versions, the dimensions must match exactly and the inSampleSize must be 1
    return candidate.getWidth() == targetOptions.outWidth
            && candidate.getHeight() == targetOptions.outHeight
            && targetOptions.inSampleSize == 1;
}

/**
 * A helper function to return the byte usage per pixel of a bitmap based on its configuration.
 */
static int getBytesPerPixel(Config config) {
    if (config == Config.ARGB_8888) {
        return 4;
    } else if (config == Config.RGB_565) {
        return 2;
    } else if (config == Config.ARGB_4444) {
        return 2;
    } else if (config == Config.ALPHA_8) {
        return 1;
    }
    return 1;
}