Gestures

Compose provides a variety of APIs to help you detect gestures that are generated from user interactions. The APIs cover a wide range of use cases:

  • Some of them are high-level and designed to cover the most commonly used gestures. For example, the clickable modifier allows easy detection of a click, and it also provides accessibility features and displays visual indicators when tapped (such as ripples).

  • There are also less commonly used gesture detectors that offer more flexibility on a lower level, like PointerInputScope.detectTapGestures or PointerInputScope.detectDragGestures but don't include the extra features.

Tapping and pressing

The clickable modifier allows apps to detect clicks on the element it's applied to.

@Composable
fun ClickableSample() {
    val count = remember { mutableStateOf(0) }
    // content that you want to make clickable
    Text(
        text = count.value.toString(),
        modifier = Modifier.clickable { count.value += 1 }
    )
}

Example of a UI element responding to taps

When more flexibility is needed, you can provide a tap gesture detector via the pointerInput modifier:

Modifier.pointerInput(Unit) {
    detectTapGestures(
        onPress = { /* Called when the gesture starts */ },
        onDoubleTap = { /* Called on Double Tap */ },
        onLongPress = { /* Called on Long Press */ },
        onTap = { /* Called on Tap */ }
    )
}

Scrolling

Scroll modifiers

The verticalScroll and horizontalScroll modifiers provide the simplest way to allow the user to scroll an element when the bounds of its contents are larger than its maximum size constraints. With the verticalScroll and horizontalScroll modifiers you don't need to translate or offset the contents.

@Composable
fun ScrollBoxes() {
    Column(
        modifier = Modifier
            .background(Color.LightGray)
            .size(100.dp)
            .verticalScroll(rememberScrollState())
    ) {
        repeat(10) {
            Text("Item $it", modifier = Modifier.padding(2.dp))
        }
    }
}

A simple vertical list responding to scroll gestures

The ScrollState allows you to change the scroll position or get its current state. To create it with default parameters, use rememberScrollState().

@Composable
private fun ScrollBoxesSmooth() {

    // Smoothly scroll 100px on first composition
    val state = rememberScrollState()
    LaunchedEffect(Unit) { state.animateScrollTo(100) }

    Column(
        modifier = Modifier
            .background(Color.LightGray)
            .size(100.dp)
            .padding(horizontal = 8.dp)
            .verticalScroll(state)
    ) {
        repeat(10) {
            Text("Item $it", modifier = Modifier.padding(2.dp))
        }
    }
}

Scrollable modifier

The scrollable modifier differs from the scroll modifiers in that scrollable detects the scroll gestures, but does not offset its contents. A ScrollableState is required for this modifier to work correctly. When constructing ScrollableState you must provide a consumeScrollDelta function which will be invoked on each scroll step (by gesture input, smooth scrolling or flinging) with the delta in pixels. This function must return the amount of scrolling distance consumed, to ensure the event is properly propagated in cases where there are nested elements that have the scrollable modifier.

The following snippet detects the gestures and displays a numerical value for an offset, but does not offset any elements:

@Composable
fun ScrollableSample() {
    // actual composable state
    var offset by remember { mutableStateOf(0f) }
    Box(
        Modifier
            .size(150.dp)
            .scrollable(
                orientation = Orientation.Vertical,
                // Scrollable state: describes how to consume
                // scrolling delta and update offset
                state = rememberScrollableState { delta ->
                    offset += delta
                    delta
                }
            )
            .background(Color.LightGray),
        contentAlignment = Alignment.Center
    ) {
        Text(offset.toString())
    }
}

A UI element detecting the finger press and displaying the numeric value for the finger's location

Nested Scrolling

Compose supports nested scrolling, in which multiple elements react to a single scroll gesture. A typical example of nested scrolling is a list inside another list, and a more complex case is a collapsing toolbar.

Automatic nested scrolling

Simple nested scrolling requires no action on your part. Gestures that initiate a scrolling action are propagated from children to parents automatically, such that when the child can't scroll any further, the gesture is handled by its parent element.

Automatic nested scrolling is supported and provided out of the box by some of Compose's components and modifiers: verticalScroll, horizontalScroll, scrollable, Lazy APIs and TextField. This means that when the user scrolls an inner child of nested components, the previous modifiers propagate the scrolling deltas to the parents that have nested scrolling support.

The following example shows elements with a verticalScroll modifier applied to it inside a container that also has a verticalScroll modifier applied to it.

val gradient = Brush.verticalGradient(0f to Color.Gray, 1000f to Color.White)
Box(
    modifier = Modifier
        .background(Color.LightGray)
        .verticalScroll(rememberScrollState())
        .padding(32.dp)
) {
    Column {
        repeat(6) {
            Box(
                modifier = Modifier
                    .height(128.dp)
                    .verticalScroll(rememberScrollState())
            ) {
                Text(
                    "Scroll here",
                    modifier = Modifier
                        .border(12.dp, Color.DarkGray)
                        .background(brush = gradient)
                        .padding(24.dp)
                        .height(150.dp)
                )
            }
        }
    }
}

Two nested vertical scrolling UI elements, responding to gestures inside and outside the inner element

Using the nestedScroll modifier

If you need to create an advanced coordinated scroll between multiple elements, the nestedScroll modifier gives you more flexibility by defining a nested scrolling hierarchy. As mentioned in the previous section, some components have built-in nested scroll support. However, for composables that aren't scrollable automatically, such as Box or Column, scroll deltas on such components won't propagate in the nested scroll system and the deltas won't reach the NestedScrollConnection nor the parent component. To resolve this, you can use nestedScroll to confer such support to other components, including custom components.

Nested scrolling interop (Starting with Compose 1.2.0)

When you try to nest scrollable View elements in scrollable composables, or the other way around, you might encounter issues. Most noticeable ones would happen when you scroll the child and reach its start or end bounds and expect the parent to take the scrolling over. However, this expected behaviour either might not happen or might not work as expected.

This issue is a result of the expectations built in scrollable composables. Scrollable composables have a "nested-scroll-by-default" rule, which means that any scrollable container must participate in the nested scroll chain, both as a parent via NestedScrollConnection, and as a child via NestedScrollDispatcher. The child would then drive a nested scroll for the parent when the child is at the bound. As an example, this rule allows Compose Pager and Compose LazyRow to work well together. However, when interoperability scrolling is being done with ViewPager2 or RecyclerView, since these don’t implement NestedScrollingParent3, the continuous scrolling from child to parent is not possible.

To enable nested scrolling interop API between scrollable View elements and scrollable composables, nested in both directions, you can use the nested scrolling interop API to mitigate these issues, in the following scenarios.

A cooperating parent View containing a child ComposeView

A cooperating parent View is one that already implements NestedScrollingParent3 and therefore is able to receive scrolling deltas from a cooperating nested child composable. ComposeView would act as a child in this case and would need to (indirectly) implement NestedScrollingChild3. One example of a cooperating parent is androidx.coordinatorlayout.widget.CoordinatorLayout.

If you need nested scrolling interoperability between scrollable View parent containers and nested scrollable child composables, you can use rememberNestedScrollInteropConnection().

rememberNestedScrollInteropConnection() allows and remembers the NestedScrollConnection that enables nested scroll interoperability between a View parent that implements NestedScrollingParent3 and a Compose child. This should be used in conjunction with a nestedScroll modifier. Since nested scrolling is enabled by default on the Compose side, you can use this connection to enable both nested scroll on the View side and add the necessary glue logic between Views and composables.

A frequent use case is using CoordinatorLayout, CollapsingToolbarLayout and a child composable, shown in this example:

<androidx.coordinatorlayout.widget.CoordinatorLayout
    xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android"
    xmlns:app="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res-auto"
    android:layout_width="match_parent"
    android:layout_height="match_parent">

    <com.google.android.material.appbar.AppBarLayout
        android:id="@+id/app_bar"
        android:layout_width="match_parent"
        android:layout_height="100dp"
        android:fitsSystemWindows="true">

            <com.google.android.material.appbar.CollapsingToolbarLayout
            android:id="@+id/collapsing_toolbar_layout"
            android:layout_width="match_parent"
            android:layout_height="match_parent"
            android:fitsSystemWindows="true"
            app:layout_scrollFlags="scroll|exitUntilCollapsed">

             <!--...-->

        </com.google.android.material.appbar.CollapsingToolbarLayout>

    </com.google.android.material.appbar.AppBarLayout>

    <androidx.compose.ui.platform.ComposeView
        android:id="@+id/compose_view"
        app:layout_behavior="@string/appbar_scrolling_view_behavior"
        android:layout_width="match_parent"
        android:layout_height="match_parent"/>

</androidx.coordinatorlayout.widget.CoordinatorLayout>

In your Activity or Fragment, you need to set up your child composable and the required NestedScrollConnection:

open class MainActivity : ComponentActivity() {

    override fun onCreate(savedInstanceState: Bundle?) {
        super.onCreate(savedInstanceState)
        setContentView(R.layout.activity_main)
        findViewById<ComposeView>(R.id.compose_view).apply {
            setContent {
                val nestedScrollInterop = rememberNestedScrollInteropConnection()
                // Add the nested scroll connection to your top level @Composable element
                // using the nestedScroll modifier.
                LazyColumn(modifier = Modifier.nestedScroll(nestedScrollInterop)) {
                    items(20) { item ->
                        Box(
                            modifier = Modifier
                                .padding(16.dp)
                                .height(56.dp)
                                .fillMaxWidth()
                                .background(Color.Gray),
                            contentAlignment = Alignment.Center
                        ) {
                            Text(item.toString())
                        }
                    }
                }
            }
        }
    }
}

A parent composable containing a child AndroidView

This scenario covers the implementation of nested scrolling interop API on the Compose side - when you have a parent composable containing a child AndroidView. The AndroidView implements NestedScrollDispatcher, since it acts as a child to a Compose scrolling parent, as well as NestedScrollingParent3 , since it acts as a parent to a View scrolling child. Compose parent will then be able to receive nested scroll deltas from a nested scrollable child View.

The following example shows how you can achieve nested scrolling interop in this scenario, along with a Compose collapsing toolbar:

@Composable
private fun NestedScrollInteropComposeParentWithAndroidChildExample() {
    val toolbarHeightPx = with(LocalDensity.current) { ToolbarHeight.roundToPx().toFloat() }
    val toolbarOffsetHeightPx = remember { mutableStateOf(0f) }

    // Sets up the nested scroll connection between the Box composable parent
    // and the child AndroidView containing the RecyclerView
    val nestedScrollConnection = remember {
        object : NestedScrollConnection {
            override fun onPreScroll(available: Offset, source: NestedScrollSource): Offset {
                // Updates the toolbar offset based on the scroll to enable
                // collapsible behaviour
                val delta = available.y
                val newOffset = toolbarOffsetHeightPx.value + delta
                toolbarOffsetHeightPx.value = newOffset.coerceIn(-toolbarHeightPx, 0f)
                return Offset.Zero
            }
        }
    }

    Box(
        Modifier
            .fillMaxSize()
            .nestedScroll(nestedScrollConnection)
    ) {
        TopAppBar(
            modifier = Modifier
                .height(ToolbarHeight)
                .offset { IntOffset(x = 0, y = toolbarOffsetHeightPx.value.roundToInt()) }
        )

        AndroidView(
            { context ->
                LayoutInflater.from(context)
                    .inflate(R.layout.view_in_compose_nested_scroll_interop, null).apply {
                        with(findViewById<RecyclerView>(R.id.main_list)) {
                            layoutManager = LinearLayoutManager(context, VERTICAL, false)
                            adapter = NestedScrollInteropAdapter()
                        }
                    }.also {
                        // Nested scrolling interop is enabled when
                        // nested scroll is enabled for the root View
                        ViewCompat.setNestedScrollingEnabled(it, true)
                    }
            },
            // ...
        )
    }
}

private class NestedScrollInteropAdapter :
    Adapter<NestedScrollInteropAdapter.NestedScrollInteropViewHolder>() {
    val items = (1..10).map { it.toString() }

    override fun onCreateViewHolder(
        parent: ViewGroup,
        viewType: Int
    ): NestedScrollInteropViewHolder {
        return NestedScrollInteropViewHolder(
            LayoutInflater.from(parent.context)
                .inflate(R.layout.list_item, parent, false)
        )
    }

    override fun onBindViewHolder(holder: NestedScrollInteropViewHolder, position: Int) {
        // ...
    }

    class NestedScrollInteropViewHolder(view: View) : ViewHolder(view) {
        fun bind(item: String) {
            // ...
        }
    }
    // ...
}

This example shows how you can use the API with a scrollable modifier:

@Composable
fun ViewInComposeNestedScrollInteropExample() {
    Box(
        Modifier
            .fillMaxSize()
            .scrollable(rememberScrollableState {
                // View component deltas should be reflected in Compose
                // components that participate in nested scrolling
                it
            }, Orientation.Vertical)
    ) {
        AndroidView(
            { context ->
                LayoutInflater.from(context)
                    .inflate(android.R.layout.list_item, null)
                    .apply {
                        // Nested scrolling interop is enabled when
                        // nested scroll is enabled for the root View
                        ViewCompat.setNestedScrollingEnabled(this, true)
                    }
            }
        )
    }
}

And finally, this example shows how nested scrolling interop API is used with BottomSheetDialogFragment to achieve a successful drag and dismiss behaviour:

class BottomSheetFragment : BottomSheetDialogFragment() {

    override fun onCreateView(
        inflater: LayoutInflater,
        container: ViewGroup?,
        savedInstanceState: Bundle?
    ): View {
        val rootView: View = inflater.inflate(R.layout.fragment_bottom_sheet, container, false)

        rootView.findViewById<ComposeView>(R.id.compose_view).apply {
            setContent {
                val nestedScrollInterop = rememberNestedScrollInteropConnection()
                LazyColumn(
                    Modifier
                        .nestedScroll(nestedScrollInterop)
                        .fillMaxSize()
                ) {
                    item {
                        Text(text = "Bottom sheet title")
                    }
                    items(10) {
                        Text(
                            text = "List item number $it",
                            modifier = Modifier.fillMaxWidth()
                        )
                    }
                }
            }
            return rootView
        }
    }
}

Note that rememberNestedScrollInteropConnection() will install a NestedScrollConnection in the element you attach it to. NestedScrollConnection is responsible for transmitting the deltas from the Compose level to the View level. This enables the element to participate in nested scrolling, but it doesn't enabling scrolling of elements automatically. To composables that aren't scrollable automatically, such as Box or Column, scroll deltas on such components won't propagate in the nested scroll system and the deltas won't reach the NestedScrollConnection provided by rememberNestedScrollInteropConnection(), therefore those deltas won't reach the parent View component. To resolve this, make sure you also set scrollable modifiers to these types of nested composables. You can refer to the previous section on Nested scrolling for more detailed information.

A non-cooperating parent View containing a child ComposeView

A non-cooperating View is one that does not implement the necessary NestedScrolling interfaces on the View side. Note that this means that nested scrolling interoperability with these Views doesn't work out of the box. Non-cooperating Views are RecyclerView and ViewPager2.

Dragging

The draggable modifier is the high-level entry point to drag gestures in a single orientation, and reports the drag distance in pixels.

It's important to note that this modifier is similar to scrollable, in that it only detects the gesture. You need to hold the state and represent it on screen by, for example, moving the element via the offset modifier:

var offsetX by remember { mutableStateOf(0f) }
Text(
    modifier = Modifier
        .offset { IntOffset(offsetX.roundToInt(), 0) }
        .draggable(
            orientation = Orientation.Horizontal,
            state = rememberDraggableState { delta ->
                offsetX += delta
            }
        ),
    text = "Drag me!"
)

If you need to control the whole dragging gesture, consider using the drag gesture detector instead, via the pointerInput modifier.

Box(modifier = Modifier.fillMaxSize()) {
    var offsetX by remember { mutableStateOf(0f) }
    var offsetY by remember { mutableStateOf(0f) }

    Box(
        Modifier
            .offset { IntOffset(offsetX.roundToInt(), offsetY.roundToInt()) }
            .background(Color.Blue)
            .size(50.dp)
            .pointerInput(Unit) {
                detectDragGestures { change, dragAmount ->
                    change.consumeAllChanges()
                    offsetX += dragAmount.x
                    offsetY += dragAmount.y
                }
            }
    )
}

A UI element being dragged by a finger press

Swiping

The swipeable modifier lets you drag elements which, when released, animate towards typically two or more anchor points defined in an orientation. A common usage for this is to implement a ‘swipe-to-dismiss’ pattern.

It's important to note that this modifier does not move the element, it only detects the gesture. You need to hold the state and represent it on screen by, for example, moving the element via the offset modifier.

The swipeable state is required in the swipeable modifier, and can be created and remembered with rememberSwipeableState(). This state also provides a set of useful methods to programmatically animate to anchors (see snapTo, animateTo, performFling, and performDrag) as well as properties to observe the dragging progress.

The swipe gesture can be configured to have different threshold types, such as FixedThreshold(Dp) and FractionalThreshold(Float), and they can be different for each anchor point from-to combination.

For more flexibility, you can configure the resistance when swiping past the bounds and, also, the velocityThreshold which will animate a swipe to the next state, even if the positional thresholdshave not been reached.

@Composable
fun SwipeableSample() {
    val width = 96.dp
    val squareSize = 48.dp

    val swipeableState = rememberSwipeableState(0)
    val sizePx = with(LocalDensity.current) { squareSize.toPx() }
    val anchors = mapOf(0f to 0, sizePx to 1) // Maps anchor points (in px) to states

    Box(
        modifier = Modifier
            .width(width)
            .swipeable(
                state = swipeableState,
                anchors = anchors,
                thresholds = { _, _ -> FractionalThreshold(0.3f) },
                orientation = Orientation.Horizontal
            )
            .background(Color.LightGray)
    ) {
        Box(
            Modifier
                .offset { IntOffset(swipeableState.offset.value.roundToInt(), 0) }
                .size(squareSize)
                .background(Color.DarkGray)
        )
    }
}

A UI element responding to a swipe gesture

Multitouch: Panning, zooming, rotating

To detect multitouch gestures used for panning, zooming and rotating, you can use the transformable modifier. This modifier does not transform elements by itself, it only detects the gestures.

@Composable
fun TransformableSample() {
    // set up all transformation states
    var scale by remember { mutableStateOf(1f) }
    var rotation by remember { mutableStateOf(0f) }
    var offset by remember { mutableStateOf(Offset.Zero) }
    val state = rememberTransformableState { zoomChange, offsetChange, rotationChange ->
        scale *= zoomChange
        rotation += rotationChange
        offset += offsetChange
    }
    Box(
        Modifier
            // apply other transformations like rotation and zoom
            // on the pizza slice emoji
            .graphicsLayer(
                scaleX = scale,
                scaleY = scale,
                rotationZ = rotation,
                translationX = offset.x,
                translationY = offset.y
            )
            // add transformable to listen to multitouch transformation events
            // after offset
            .transformable(state = state)
            .background(Color.Blue)
            .fillMaxSize()
    )
}

A UI element responding to multitouch gestures—panning, zooming, and rotating

If you need to combine zooming, panning and rotation with other gestures, you can use the PointerInputScope.detectTransformGestures detector.